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In the Indian legal system, an offender’s economic background, education level, social status and religious identity often works against his interests in legal proceedings. Do you agree? Substantiate.

Late President Dr Abdul Kalam sir has raised voice against capital punishment as he founded largely minority and poor class people are punished by it. There are concrete facts following

  • Data says maximum prisoners around 70% in our jails are poor with low social status and education under trial.
  • More than 60% of the capital punishment offered, to from minority and low social status
  • A specific religious identity and notion in society some time get adversely affect the legal proceedings especially in terror act.
  • Poor who are not aware of laws are maximum in prison to face legal trials
  • In high profile case like Salman Khan, and many others, common notion society get that richer and affluent get easy escape from legal system.
  • Legal service like NALSA largely not available to most needed as they are not aware about their rights.
  • Law commission of India, Sacchar committee, Tribal welfare reports also acknowledged this fact that justice is poorly accessible to low social status people.

Positive here is that all stakeholders acknowledge know this fact and so took many steps to overcome. More and more PIL, local adalat concept, focusing to strengthen NALSA, and recent emotional plight of Chief Justice of India ensure the masses that legal system need a  change an willing to change with proper political and social support for most needy.

Explain the crisis being faced by Venezuela vis a vis India in their trade relations, caused by the plunging global oil market. Is there a way out to thwart such crises in the future? Examine the issue

Venezuela has been India’s third largest oil supplier and also a close friend under NAM movement as it has elected chairman of NAM for 2015. There are certain concrete reasons which are affecting India Venezuela relation in recent past

  • After global oil price fall, Venezuela is one the country is which worse hit by it because its more than 70% revenue earns from oil export business. India as its one the largest supplier cannot be untouched by it.
  • After president Chavez death in 2013, there is no political settlement as yet and which is not healthy of India Venezuela relation in long run.,
  • Trade between both nations is stagnant or falling downing down because of oil price fall in last one year. Because of it, ONGC Vides investment plan there is also in hold for some time.
  • More choice for India from Iran, other Middle East nations, and African country also may reduce India dependence on Venezuela for oil supply.

To come out from this, it is largely in Venezuela part of take few concrete actions

  • Venezuela must now think to diversify its income sources other than oil export. In that India can offer help. . It is the high time for diversify Indian presence there.
  • Political settlement and people acceptance of political leadership is needed at time of crisis for Venezuela.
  • Need to maintain strategic oil storage for long run; Venezuela can help in this initiative especially when prices are low.

Indian and Venezuela are old NAM friends and it need to get more stung relation at the time of global economic turmoil.

Tribal rights can’t be pushed aside in the name of development. What do you understand by ‘tribal rights’? From where do these rights come? Why they need to be protected? Elaborate.

Tribal community is the primitive native of any country, so they claim the first right on natural resources. Still today tribal way of life is largely depend on surrounding natural resources across the world. In the name of development tribal rights are getting hurt everywhere, here tribal right means

  • Ownership on native land. Forest, water, and other natural resources which getting robbed from tribal by one way or other.
  • Tribal community protection against development activity like dam, mining, or timber cutting.
  • Constitutional right as citizen of nations are also equal belong to tribal community.
  • Tribal rights are nothing but the most basic right of tribal community which belongs to them as they are most original native of any nation, from constitutional provisions and Human right norms, and last from nations as welfare state.

Tribal rights need to protect just not for tribal for human kind welfare because

  • It is well proven that tribal way of living is the most sustainable life style which must need to protect as model of sustainability.
  • Tribal since generations protected our natural resources, which need to get protect today more than ever.
  • Regional culture and way of life get rooted from local tribal life, to maintain it tribal need to get support.

In India, around seventy million populations is under tribal community which get constitutional rights under and other support like forest right act, PESA act, and so on. In North east states autonomous districts has been established. It is the time to ensure its implementation for tribal welfare because they hold key for sustainable world and better future of tomorrow.

What do you understand by investigative journalism? In the Indian context, what standards would you recommend to be followed and why? Analyse

In the investigative journalism reporters invest lot of time in research, analysis, and information gathering, before reaching to any conclusion. Panama leaks are one of the more discussed examples in recent time. Research oriented approach, self initiative, important subject for masses, and result oriented are few key features of investigative journalism.

In India it is still not reached at mature stage and while evolution it need to have few important standards

  • Specific course design under journalism need to set so students will have theoretical knowledge
  • Special training for investigation, data analysis, report writing, maintaining secrecy all need to be part of it to ensure professional and authentic element in it.
  • Media houses in India need to reform the internal work structure as Guardian has done. They have separate team for investigative journalism and lead by most experienced professionals.
  • Ethical and moral dimension is very critical in this business that must be part of it because it is alone give mass authenticity to this job.
  • Use of technology, in the era of digitization is also critical standard for it because it helps for information collection, analysis, and dissemination.
  • An element of secrecy and security is integral part of it as it is not the safe job in journalism.

Investigative journalism hold element of truth and so it must need to be ethical, professional, well equipped with technology, and care full professional handling.  Media is seen as forth pillar of democracy so it need to set self guideline and high standards for investigative journalism so society at large will get right information.

Ethics question: No success is permanent, no failure is fatal. Comment.

Success and failure are two part of same coin and one helps to earn other. Success is an outcome of hard work and many other factors which when fall in your part, you get success. Similar is with failure which is sometime joining you even when individual does his part of homework. There are multiple examples in history to prove it where failure proved fatal and bow before sheer hard work of individual.  Alibaba founder Zack Ma, Henry Ford founder of Ford cars, Walt Disney creator of modern cartoon world, Father of India Mahatma Gandhi struggle for freedom in India, all those got many failures before their grand success and that is similar story for many in history.

Similarly success also does not stand for long and it gets demise when time changes, but many do not want to remember the failure stories. Many great business leaders who had largest financial empire hundred years back, today nowhere stands. Many dictators and political leaders, who ruled their nations, fall down very hard when time turned back. Message form spiritual book Geeta is also same that Success and failure is a matter of time so do not attach with it. So rather taking anything for granted it is must that all learn from failure and put all hard work to get taste of success. Successful people need to put double hard work to ensure that the first success was not mere a matter of chance but outcome of sheer hard work and dedication. Learning is the common in both success and failure as all great people like Einstein and Edison accepted.

What steps should be taken to improve the performance of Indian athletes in the Olympics? Does sports administration in India require reforms? Examine.

Eight time gold winner hockey team from India has dim chances to win gold in Rio Olympics. Similar statistics is for most of the other games except boxing, wrestling, and shooting.  It is unfortunate situation for India that second largest populated nation brings medal in single digit form largest sport event. If really India wants to bring realistic change in scenario, few radical steps need to put on place immediately.

  • Make sport a serious business and make it part of our culture and education system. Gymnast Deepika today proved herself because at young age of five she started working on it.
  • State and central funding support infrastructure is poorly available. Quality of coaches, infrastructure, political intervention, gender bias, poor sponsorship of other sports than cricket, are few burning issues need to be fix immediately.
  • Focus on Individual sports person, helping him financially, physically, and mentally is very much important for individual success. That is missing in our sports administration. Suicide by women sport persons in SAI campus is shameful example of it.

Sport administration in India must be managed by professional and not any politician. Multiple numbers of federations need to check and bring under one professional body. State wise proper representation, specialization for individual sport and ensure facilities for them, are few important radical suggestions need to be taken for improve state administration.  Central and state government role is to facilitate the whole process, ensure fund for sports, and keep politics aside from it. Also a review process as Lodha Committee has done for cricket must be done for whole sport administration to understand lacuna and bring action plan to fix it in long run.


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