Hilly regions are vulnerable to landslides. Why? Can you identify some highly sensitive regions of our country where landslides occur frequently? Also suggest mitigation strategies for the same.
Recent land slide in Uttarakhand has once again reminded tragedy by this natural catastrophe. Land slide means sudden fall down of heavy mass of soil/rock debris. It may occur because of sudden rainfall, earthquake, mining, high slope region, and infrastructure projects in loose soil areas, river flooding, and other human interventions. Hills are more vulnerable if any disturbance occurs on soil, than degree of soil movement is very high because of high slope here. Also hills which are still in young age there soil is not much settled like in Himalaya regions so probability of land slides in higher.
In India high sensitive areas for land slides are in Himalayan mountain region across the states and in sloppy zone of western Ghat.
To mitigate the land slide few major steps are suggested
- Prepare the vulnerability map for all the affected states and mark the highly sensitive zone.
- Avoid unplanned and unscientific infrastructure development projects in these regions.
- Promote forestry development programme
- Unplanned mining must be avoided which can degrade the soil quality and loosen the soil.
- Watershed development programme and related activity like terracing, Nala plugging, check dams on river flow areas can be effective measurements at micro level.
- Population settlement must be far from riverbed areas as NGT ordered in Rishikesh area of Uttarakhand.
- Use of technology like doplar radar for advance weather forecasting to avoid any life lose.
Land slide is natural event but its effect can be minimizing with proper human planning and logical interventions.
In order to become a preferred destination for FDI, what steps have been taken by the Government recently? Why India lags behind China in attracting FDI? Analyse
In recent data, India has become the first Green field FDI destination in the world. It is a big achievement for India. Overall FDI in India still less than China and it has following reasons
- China has predictable taxation regime so it helps investors
- Huge infrastructure under SEZ and public sectors, China has well access of transportation, ports, electricity surplus for easy business
- Cheap but skilled labour, centralized stable government for quick and impactful policy decision make working easier in China than India.
- China has started LPC policy in 1970s so it took a big advantage in terms of time also.
- Devaluation of currency to push export is trademark policy of China
In recent time India has taken many initiatives to attract FDI in India which are enlisted here
- India has set target to come in top 50 in Ease of doing business list in coming 5 years.
- Many sectors have been open and also in many sectors FDI limit has been increased like insurance, deface, retail marketing and so on.
- Taxation policy is much more predictable today in India
- Regularity bodies in India like RBI and SEBI has done commendable job to bring investor confidence.
- New initiatives like Make in India, Digital India, Smart cities, renewable energy sector, start up India and so on all these endeavors has immense potential to investment.
- Making document related process online and have separate system to satisfy FDI quarries by DIPP also a bonus for new investors.
- Legislative reforms like Bankruptcy code, and positive mood for GST also helps.
India has delivered qualitatively in last one year for attracting FDI but a long distance need to cover. China has done it for two decades and more continuously so to achieve it India need to take many more bold reforms. Recent slowdown of China has created new opportunities for India.