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Day 16- Ques Ans

Human dignity remains a far fetched utopia unless and until the poorest of all are forced to adopt manual scavenging as a means to subsistence. Comment. Why even after complete ban and strict penal provisions, the demeaning practice of manual scavenging persists in India. Examine.

Manual scavenging is one of the most undignified job human has ever performed. In India still more than 7 lakh people mostly from lower caste, especially women are performing this job. Before independence Gandhi Ji took it as equal priority as independence and worked immensely with untouchables to eradicate it. It is the mission printed in constitution also. In post independence many steps has been taken to eradicate it but still it prevails because

  • Societal mindset- is biggest challenge is mindset, still in our cities and villages a section of society is recognized for this job.
  • Unskilled people- mostly women and distressed people are in the business Pseudo government policies which do not have ground implementation
  • It is closely link with other livelihood like lather business, in which India has huge potential,
  • Poor technical interventions by our panchayat and municipalities to clean the human excreta so no alternative for manual scavengers.
  • Poor rehabilitation policy
  • Poor scale up of Sulabh international type social model against scavenging

All this create huge challenges for the community like isolation in society, conical health disease, poor care of dependents, poor access of public places, and absolute poverty.

Many steps has been taken by union governments and state governments like legislative steps to eradicate the scavenging under manual scavenging probation act 1993, resettlement policy for workers, financial aid for alternative livelihoods, mechanization of scavenging job in cities, social recognition and so on. Social revolution is the only alternative to eradicate the manual scavenging with government support and it will be the true symbol of Swacch Bharat.

    Persuasion plays an important role in governance. Do you agree? Substantiate by taking examples

Persuasion is the process of changing one’s believe, attitude, or thought process towards some idea or reasoning. It ensures the public participation with government in active dialogue and so push for better governance. Presently when most of the advance countries are in democratic framework, governments use persuasion as active tool to communicate with citizens. Many international movements taken by United Nation, WHO, and FAO is largely based upon persuasion. This can be better understand by following examples

1-      Celebration of Earth day every year at international level is one way to persuade global citizens against climate change.

2-      Campaigns at global level like SAVE FOOD and Green world run by civil societies influence the governments to modify their policies. Modern environment movement in 1970s is one example of it in USA.

3-      In Indian context recently we have seen approx 10 million people left the LPG connection persuaded by prime minister. Other social movements like Swacch Bharat, Clean Ganga mission, Save Himalaya and so on are blend of persuasion and policy work.

4-      Persuasion effectively works in crisis situation also. In recent item USA president tried to persuade parents and policy makers against use of weapons.

5-      Communication for behavior change regarding save water movement, care of old citizens, helping the differently able people, equal treatment with transgender and so on all are example of persuasion.

Persuasion do not stand alone in governance and it need to get support of other aspects also like negotiation, active government steps in support of mutual dialogues, effective channel of communication, and credulity of government.


In dealing with its neighbors, SAARC could have been an appropriate platform for India to pursue the vision of a stable and prosperous South Asia. What factors have stalled progress on this front? Discuss. What are the alternatives for India?

In 985 SAARC was established with common goals and aspiration. It had a dream to develop somewhat like European Union. Today even after thirty years, SAARC could not be capitalize it as it could be done because of multiple challenges.

  • India could not lead from the front as Germany did for EU. India has many differences with other members which hindered its role as major bounding power in SAARC.
  • Pakistan and India rivalry probably the biggest cause which hinder any progress in SAARC region. Motor vehicle act, common energy grid, SAARC satellite and many other initiatives could not scale up because of it.
  • Internal disturbance in each member country and poor political stability also one major reason. Shri Lanka and Afghanistan are example of it.
  • Poor financial power and funding was one reason that SAARC members could not took many initiatives.
  • Absence of active secretariat and institutional mechanism to take-up action on decisions.

Today India again looks for strengthen the SAARC and for that many steps need to be taken

  1.  Involve SAARC members in other international groups also for negotiation like SCO and UN.
  2. Active help to all SAARC members for political and financial stability. recent fund reduction to members by India is a cause of concern.
  3. Common set up also push by India like SAARC satellite, SAARC University, international solar alliance need to push for opening new communication channel..

As an alternative of Pakistan hindrance in recent past India has taken many steps out of SAARC also to strengthen its relation with other members like vehicle movement act deal with other countries escaping Pakistan or Chabahar port for entering Afghanistan.


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