The current pace of urbanization requires integrated planning for making existing and upcoming towns resilient to extreme weather events and disasters. Comment.
Chennai flood was a critical review of our preparation against weather events and disasters. Projection is that till 2033 50% population will be in cities, India needs promote action to make cities more resilient. Presently Indian cities face many critical challenges because
- Poor pool of trained human resource against natural and manmade disasters.
- Cities are overcrowded so more prone for manmade disasters like fire, air congestion, chemical disaster, building collapse, endemic diseases and so on
- No proper drainage system so flood like situation is common as wetlands and riverbeds are choked and encroached.
- Against extreme weather events like dust air or heat wave as seen in South and Western India no specific action plan has been followed.
- No scientific planning for city development happened so cities in seismic zone do not have plan against earth quake in North India.
To overcome these challenge multi stakeholder approach is the key of success as
- Master city plan for each city under AMRUT OR SMARTI project need inputs from environmentalist, finance persons, technologist, water body experts, health specialist and so on
- International expertise will be great help as under Rockefeller Foundation project Surat and Bangalore has been developing as weather resilient model
- Local people participation and their knowledge of extreme weather events is key of mitigating hazard
- Proper weather forecasting system for each city
- Municipal corporations need trained staff and active state support as FFC also suggested
All this is need of time otherwise our cities which are meant to be engine of development can turn burden to development process.
The variety and richness of India’s ancient sculpture and temple arts bear testimony to an open and secularized society. Discuss.
Indian Vedic culture was religious and it is symbolized in many sculptures found of that time period. Sculptures of that time have ample evidences that Indian prayed to nature and believe it as god.
There is much testimony in Indian timeline which show India was open and secularist society
1- Till Gupta period there is not mention of temple it shows Indian were mainly pray to nature as deity which has secular symbolism.
2- In past majority of Indian currency had animal symbols (Pashupatinath in harrapa civilization which shows as Indian society was not tilted to any religion but followed nature.
3- Gandhara and Mathura style of sculptures has acceptance from different styles like Sakas, Romans, Indians, and so on. It shows acceptance in Indian culture.
4- Temple art like Nagara and Dravidian even evolved that different parts of country but they are significantly influenced from other art cultures as it was open to accept ideas
5- Wall sculptures in Khujraho have many erotic structures which depicts Indian acceptance of sex as open topic for society.
6- Buddhism got accepted in many other nations because its symbols and sculptures, and architectures had deeper sense of secularism and openness.
7- Ellora caves have three religions presence together which still hold the truth of Indian secularism since ancient time.
Indian culture has openness and secularism as core principle and even it may sometime get diluted because of narrow ideas but its stability for thousand years is the testimony of its strength in India.