The pipeline infrastructure in India leaves a lot to be desired. Discuss in light of the benefits of pipeline transportation.
In global perspective pipeline infrastructure has been used to different purposes including energy supply, stream transportation, and water supply and so on. In India pipe lines infrastructure has great potential for different purposes
– To petroleum supply already India has pipe line infrastructure – Barauni-Haldiya route, Nunmati- Siliguri, Barauni- Kanpur pipeline and so on
– Gas supply from international destinies to India like proposed TAPI project between Turkmenistan and India. Also within India for house hold supply will reduce the cost of cylinder and same time reduce to chances for accidents.
– Water supply- for inter water linkage or other irrigation channels huge pipeline technology can immensely help. To supply water in future for drought prone areas and osmosis water supply for drinking purpose from coastal area to interior places will use the pipeline technology.
– Pollution control- for safe disposition of pollution in sludge form outside the city, pipelines can help in smart city projects.
– Safe in difficult terrain and in adverse weather conditions for supply.
Pipelines are easy to cover long distance, safety assurance, low transportation cost, and underground management which make it considerable idea for transportation.
Major challenges to utilize the pipe lines for transpiration are multidimensional;
- Low technical capacity is one prime reason as for TAPI project India is looking MNCs to complete the project.
- Land acquisition and inter departmental clearance is other challenge for such long distance projects. To counter it, Planning Commission suggested building pipe lines across the railway network.
- Initial investment cost is higher with safety measures which need sound financial backing.
- International negotiations and safety concerns for Trans-boundary pipelines project like TAPI which passes from 3 nations.
Assess the potential of wind energy production in India. What challenges pertain to this sector? Discuss.
Indian INDC for Paris climate meeting has targeted to increase its energy share 175 GB from renewable sources till 2022. Wind energy which has maximum contribution today, need to contribute 60 GB under this ambitious target. Total potential for Indian wind energy has been estimated 302 GB at height of 100 meter. Wind energy production in future depends on few imp factors
- Southern, Western, and North Western states participation as there we have huge potential for wind energy
- Central government has passed the new rules to establish the wind power which has many incentives to promote it
- Energy production depends on its establishment in sea shores so state and centre understanding is important to access the wind energy.
- Smart grid technology for energy restoration and transportation
There are many challenges while promoting it
- Ecological challenges- as in many areas vulnerable bird species get hurt by it and so number reduced
- Land acquisition- is another concern for establishing the wind units.
- Low efficiency of plants as only 23-25% capacity has been utilized.
- Investment- fix cost is very high and project age is low (25 Year) so need private investment or FDI in the sector.
- Grid integrating- is poor, inefficient and per unit energy cost is high to difficulty in sale of energy produce.
- Technical challenges- as largely depend on foreign nations
- Government subsidy model need to be simple as today many regulators are involved which make process complex.
Challenges are immense so opportunities, Local innovation like Lithium battery for energy storation and startup promotion to take idea with government support will make wind energy viable in long run.
The potential of textiles industry in India hasn’t been tapped to it’s full. Discuss. What steps can be taken to integrate this industry with the global supply chain.
Textile industry is one of the oldest advance industry and integrated part of Indian industrial and employment generation. With passing year this sector has seen many changes and today after China India has maximum spindleage. Today India has cotton to manmade fiber use ratio is about 65:35 which is reducing continuously. India is major player to export the textile projects in global market. However India not able to tap the full potential in textile industry because
- Poor and old technology uses by India workers
- Poor infrastructure specially energy supply to textile units
- Child laobur and bonded labour issues
- Poor quality raw material
- Dumping of foreign goods from China and South East Asian countries so fierce competition
- Degree of innovation and product upgrading is slow as per market demand
- Huge pollution contributed from textile industry
To overcome these challenge many radical steps need to change
- Cluster approach to promote textile with advance technology upgrading, financial support, and infrastructure support is basic need.
- Backward link– to ensure supply of quality raw material for units will serve the dual purpose; silk, cotton, jute producing farmers will get sure prize and units will have surety of material.
- Product development- need support form expert institutes like NIFT and others.
- Marketing and Export– to competitive within nation and outside with China and Vietnam products especially in FTA regime needs active government negotiation and support.
- Training under skill development, support entrepreneurship under start up India, and promotion under digital India will integrate the supply chain.
- To address pollution challenges better technology needed for smart pollution disposition.