What is the importance of persuasion in policy making? Is it true that legal provisions if backed with effective persuasive campaign can ensure better outcomes? Examine. Also provide examples to support your arguments.
In the era of globalization and democracy, policy making at national and international level is highly dependence on success of persuasion. Persuasion has importance on
Mobilizing mass support – It is to make policies for common good like climate change deal in Paris. Similar at national level policy for Clean Ganga mission or Swach Bharat Mission or Direct benefit support all are example of persuasion.
Negotiate critical issues– Post Second World War era many crisis situation like Cuba missile crisis has handled by successful persuasion and negotiation. Many international institutions success Like WTO, UN, NSG, and so on depends on consensus and persuasion.
Stabilizing democracy– In recent much hyped debate of “Brixit”, leaders of different ideology is persuading the people. Similar in India on North East issue government is trying to persuade the radical elements to setup peace these states.
It is important to note that persuasion has definite limitation and need support from legal or executive provisions because it assures trust among people and other stakeholders. Few examples are
- Recent Indian government initiative of SWM, Clean Ganga Mission, or GIVE UP campaign gets success when action has been taken at ground like making toilets in school or spending 5000 crore to provide free gas connection to poor families. It establishes faith among people.
- “Mission Indradhanush” success depends on active health services among poorest districts like in past happened it for successful Polio mission.
- Indian persuasion to join MTCR and NSG only get positive international voice when India unilaterally followed the principles for long time.
Persuasion and negotiation are tools for soft power which India has used successfully at national and international forums successfully as part of its policy legal backing provide credential to it.
What is your evaluation on the effectiveness of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) clause inserted in the Companies Act, 2013 in the past 3 years? Has it performed to its potential? Which areas remain outside the reach of CSR or have performed poorly? Analyse.
CSR is one of the major clause in company act 2013 and today in India around 8000 companies fall under CSR ambit and around 25000 crore Rs is sum total contribution projected from CSR for development projects. In last three year many achievements can be counted as
- Active government partner– CSR has taken active lead to many government initiatives like Skill India, SBM, promoting education and health, and natural resource management.
- Policy advocacy– in recent drought CSR firms like SRTT, HUVF, and M&M, and so on actively working at state and national level to bring the long term change in mitigation policy.
- Grass root innovation– Many grass root innovation for livelihood promotion and environment conservation have been evolved which can be taken up at policy level for larger implementation.
- Partnership– with NGOs, civil society, and direct with community have bring corporation closer to people and it has channelized funds in much efficient manner.
- Better practices- Research, documentation and monitoring has been improved in development sector after CSR involvement.
Although many case studies have come as success of CSR but still it long behind from its real potential because
- Corporate dilemma- as it is emerging area so many corporate still struggling for working model, trained HR, working partners, and limited knowledge of project implementation.
- Publicity stunt- Many CSR has taken it as publicity stunt to publish few good cases to cover their actual work. For instance Vedanta group in Goa and Orissa or Pepsico group which claim to save more water than extract.
Many areas are still left from CSR ambit which they do need to touch work and policy advocacy like gender sensitivity, climate change mitigation, LGBT cause, working for communicable diseases like HIV, welfare to refugee and migrants, and so on.
Heritage doesn’t only constitute of the monuments, temples, and other man made structures. Natural heritage also forms an integral part of India’s heritage. Can you identify some unique natural features typical to India which come under this category? Also assess their potential of attracting tourists.
India has rich heritage of natural sites as since ancient time it has integrated part of Indian civilization. Kalidas detailed mentioning of natural Indian beauty in Meghdutam and Abhigyan Shakuntalam is testimony of it. In medieval time Muslim kings also maintained natural places and Mughal garden are world known for its beauty. Unique feature of Indian natural heritage are
- Natural climate diversity is the biggest blessing for natural heritage. Kashmir to Kanyakumari and Kutch to Chirapunji variation of climate and topography make naturally India rich for natural heritage.
- People affection, love, and dependence on nature also one unique feature. For sustaining life and livelihood still today people have deep integration with nature across the India especially among tribal and rural people.
- Indian way of life like prayer, festivals, local dance, drama, cropping pattern, and livelihood are still attached and influenced by nature. Scared grooves and scared animals believe are example of it.
- Amazing places like Himalayan eco system, desert of Kutch, vast coastal area, coral in Indian islands, and few examples of Indian natural heritage diversity. Its value gets multiplied with presence of variety of fauna and flora which attract tourist from across the world.
To conserve natural heritage and make people aware about it, promoting tourism has deeper significance; it can be done by many innovative like
- Promoting eco tourism in north East states, rural and tribal context with support of forest department.
- Focusing on local festivals like Horn will in Nagaland
- Using social media and internet to promote Indian natural heritage places in international forum like Gujurat tourism did by Involving Amitabh Bacchan.
- Make people sensitive to natural places to make it clean and develop as in “Asia cleanest village” in Meghalaya.