The industry-academia interface in India requires a major overhaul from the policy side. Do you agree? Why? What reforms have been introduced by the government recently? Discuss.
Present situation of Industry- academic relation is grim India and it need a policy flip for these reasons.
- Market oriented research– academia does lot of research and still industries are not able to find the market oriented research in India. Policy support is must to bring academics skill for production and market oriented use.
- Fund support– academics today mostly depend of government for funding support. By integrating function with market, fund support largely can generate from market and same time industry will get innovation as per demand.
- Competition– today international market has huge competition in terms of innovation and research. Indian firms and academics are seen as laggard in many fronts as compare to China, Japan, and other nations. To reduce the gap this will help.
- Demographic dividend– college youth will understand the current market demand by better integration. Also it will help academic institutions to redesign courses as per market need.
- Reduce red tape in functioning – Policy side seen as regulator more than enabler in both the areas. Such scenario needs to change.
In recent time government has taken few initiatives to bring academics and industry together like
- Apprentice act – amendments has made for apprentice so academic and industry will have integration in terms of sharpening the youth for market oriented skills
- Innovation centers– have been developed under AIM to push innovations for market by involving academic institutions.
- Other initiatives– Skill India programme is good platform to integrate. Digital India, Gyan and NEP 2016 are other initiatives to push for this movement.
India needs to learn from global experience for academic industry relation and that need to take as priority by Indian policy makers.
What do you understand by the term ‘indigenous’ people? Identify some of the indigenous tribes of India along with their locations. What kind of a strategy should be adopted for their welfare without disrupting the symbiotic relationship that exists between these tribes and the nature? Discuss.
Indigenous people, tribal, or “Adivasi” are local community who are living in a geographical location since last thousand years. Tribal food habit, dress, culture, economic and every aspect of life show the influence of that region. 7 core populations belong to tribal community in India. Few indigenous tribal communities are
Gond- in MP
Bheel- in Central India
Bhotia, Raje, Vanrawat- hills in Uttarakhand
Khasi, Garo, Jayantia- Meghalaya
Today tribal are facing a serious threat to stable themselves and maintain their identity. To ensure it few challenges need to address
Balance in development and tribal life– it is the biggest threat today tribal community is facing. Forest area are under threat so tribal habitat and living standard. Better implementation of FRI and PESA act is a game changer in this regard.
Rehabilitation policy– development is necessity so on that note, tribal community get disturbed historically. A robust rehabilitate policy needs to develop to address this challenge.
Protect tribal culture- it need to done by promotion through exhibition, rural tourism, and marketing of tribal art like varli paining will help in this regard.
Focus on life standard– today tribal is most distress community. Education, health, house, road and other basic infrastructure is far from them. Government need to address such challenges under specific programmes.
Social security coverage- under different welfare programme like financial inclusion, PDS Programme, education scholarship, health coverage, and so on.
Today across the world, tribal community is paying maximum price for human development across world. It is the reason that Maoism is blooming in such pockets. Historically tribal are known as free folks and so government and we need sensitivity for them; any road map need to tune with Nehru doctrine of tribal development.
Discuss the technology of GIS. What can can be its applications in the areas of agriculture, defense and disaster management?
Geographical Information System is a graphic aided spatial analysis tool which helps in management of spatio-temporal information by embedding multiple levels of data sets into maps. It is an interactive system aids in analysis, building inter-relation, visualization, comparison and interpretation. It offers following advantages:
Flexibility: system data can be easily edited and altered according to changing requirement
Representation: It provides condense form of graphical data representation which otherwise would have been cumbersome to plot on numerous maps and figures
Scalability: depending upon the requirement, scale of model can be changed
Recording, Retrieval and access
Multivariate inputs: GIS can work on number of unconventional variables thus aiding in easy comparison. It is because of these ease of convenience that GIS has widespread application in planning and development.
1) Pre Harvest: field level planning, feeder canal construction, local topography mapping, seed sowing lanes
2) During Harvest: boosting yield by predicting effect of temperature, precipitation, erosion control, soil health management, integrated pest management, nutrient management
3) Post Harvest: efficient storage,
4) Institutional: land record keeping in digital format, farm infra planning, precision agriculture
1) Surveillance: topography mapping and terrain evaluation, identifying blind spots, prospective danger zones, building hide outs, developing communication lines, unstable land identification
2) Response: magnetic and gravitational information, emergency aid supply through stable routes, inventory management, quick response routes, using weal terrain against enemy
C) DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1) Preparedness: hazard mapping, vulnerability analysis, safe shelter building, zonal planning
2) Mitigation: building embankments, dykes construction, planting green belts in strategic areas
3) Responses: creating safe passages, relief distribution, evacuation planning
Clearly GIS is a boon of 21st century technology. It finds limitless application in number of fields and ensures maximum efficiency in utilization of spatial resources for the benefit of mankind. In India NRSC is the nodal agency which is utilizing this technology for nation’s progress and development.
Answer by Gaurav