What was the genesis of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA)? Has it been successful in achieving the ends it was meant for? Also, is it high time that we revisit the need of this act keeping in mind the recent unrest and discontent it has brought in certain parts of the country? Critically analyse.
British government against Quit India first time brought Armed Forces special power ordinance in 1942.Nehru ji first time used it in North East to check the Naga insurgency in 1958. Recent Supreme Court observation on ASFPA and Sharmila Irom agitation again force to look on the issue-
ASFPA partially successful in its cause as
- It helped to stop insurgency in Noth East states and more or less today condition is under control compare to past.
- In Jammu & Kahsmir also it helped to control the terrorist activity after its peak in 1990s era.
However ASFPA implementation raised so many questions as
- Time period- ASFPA designed as crisis management for shorter period but in North East and J&K it has been used as state policy for more than decade.
- Human right issue- ASFPA provides extra judicial power to army and it has raised many human right violation issues across the states which was finding of SC inquiry also.
- Question mark on democracy- if 25% of total states need army control to stabilize democracy than it is failure of democratic values of India.
- No permanent solution- in Manipur and Tripura where mostly problems are internal and need political solution ASFPA can do little as permanent solution in democracy.
- Demoralize army reputation- as an institute it is harmful for Indian army also.
It is high time for Indian leaders and policy makers to think use of ASFPA state wise. Same time army needs a transparent and robust mechanism to ensure not atrocity under ASFPA by army on local civilians. Everlasting solution lies in political dialogue and local area development which should be government priority.
Last year few soldiers died in an avalanche in the Siachen glacier. What is an avalanche? How an avalanche is triggered? Identify the regions in the world that are prone to this geophysical phenomenon
Avalanche also can be called as snow slide as it is the natural event which causes sadder down flow of huge bulk of snow in mountain side. An avalanche can be triggered by different means
- Heavy snowfall- in steep areas heavy snowfall is difficult to hold for long period and so it falls in the form of avalanche. It is common in many Himalayan and European mountains.
- Terrain- with weather condition and snow packing make any locality most vulnerable for avalanche development.
- Human activities- mining in hill areas, use of heavy machineries for road and infrastructure development, defense practices in mountain areas, weapon test in vulnerable mountains, are few human activities which may trigger avalanche.
- Dam development- huge structure like dam development in mountain regions may also disturb the hill topography and cause for snow fall down when it get accumulated.
- Sudden temperature rise- may also cause for avalanche.
Across the world few areas are more known for avalanche event-
India- Higher hills of western Himalayan
Europe- Alps Mountain ranges in farce, Switzerland, and Scandinavian countries.
USA and Canada region under Rockies
Antarctic and arctic climate regions
In Indian context, it is importance to study as population resides in mountain region in India and also avalanche occurs in those areas which are strategically very important for India. India need to learn from past and other countries experiences to prepare itself against avalanche so can avoid events like Siachen where India lost its soldiers life.
What triggers a tsunami? Discuss at least four factors that lead to tsunami-genesis. Also explain the effects of tsunami in the coastal regions
Tsunami has its origin from Japanese language. Under it, huge water waves develops and once it reaches to coastal areas. It may occur because of following events
- Heavy disturbance in earth tectonic plates under the sea which may cause strong earthquake which ultimately lead tsunami.
- Under the sea, large scale landslide may also cause tsunami.
- A submarine volcanic eruption with huge energy release also probable cause for it.
- If heavy meteoroid falls from the space inside ocean it may create tsunami.
- Human activity like secret nuclear bomb or hydrogen bomb testing inside sea (hypothetical till date).
Among all the reasons the most probable reason based on historic facts is earthquake inside the sea.
Effect of tsunami in coastal regions-
- Destruction- huge natural and manmade resource destruction left behind after Tsunami. In recent period, Japan faced the tragedy and its nuclear reactor get damaged which caused environmental damage and lose of human life.
- Death- in 2001 tsunami India alone lost 24000 human lives. Including other nations and loss of livestock it number crossed lakh. It is the reason that tsunami known as one of the most destructive catastrophic natural act.
- Environmental damage- it has adverse effect on fishery, coastal vegetation, coastal eco system, which largely get disturb.
- Disease and epidemics- after tsunami creates lot of challenges rescue and rehabilitation operations.
- Psychological effect- on human minds and governments for future always remains and it create lot of havoc in human mind.
Tsunami is natural event and human need advance preparation to face it with use of proper scientific development, proper information dissemination system, rescue preparation, and cover the environmental and psychological damage in coastal areas.
Atrocities against Dalits are on a rise and so is the assertion of Dalit identity and rights. Are we witnessing a Dalit uprising in the country? Give your opinion on the issue.
After 70 year of independence, one of the foremost challenges for India is to ensure dignified life to all section of society specially Dalit who still faces day to day survival challenges because of different reasons. Recent dalit atrocities incidents across the county are example of it.
Now dalit section more open and vocal for their democratic and fundamental rights; discussion of different forums and debate on parliament of this issue is reflection of it. Dalit voice in recent past should not seen as negative connotation, but positive for society as
- Dalit capitalism- a group of Dalit entrepreneurs has shown its presence at national level and now eager to part in start up and stand up India programme.
- Political support- Dalit itself is a big vote bank so no political party can avoid them in present day democratic politics.
- Awareness- thanks to social, electric, and print media today Dalit society is much more aware for their fundamental and legal rights.
- Intellectual base- across the country, intellectual support has garner to Dalit cause and voice raised against atrocities.
- Fight against evil practice like manual scavenging get a voice by such movements.
However Dalit uprising in negative sense has created challenges also
- Masses are getting misuse for narrow political gains
- It has projected as a proxy war between majority versus minority.
- By using Dalit propaganda, certain section of society try to damage public property, disturb law and order and societal harmony
India cannot become super power by creating a gulf between Dalit and other section of society and it is our common responsibility to fill the gap to fight together bigger problems like poverty and inequality.
India’s success in the Tokyo Olympics will come only through more investments and developing a sporting culture in the country. Discuss
India recent performance in Rio Olympic overshadow the mission 2020 set for Tokyo Olympics as we even could repeat our past Olympic performance. In spite of that there is hope for better achievement if we as nation follow certain concrete steps-
- Sport investment- recent reports that India investment per day 3 paisa/ sportsman against 22 Rs by USA clearly indicates the dire need of investment in sports. Better facility for players, financial and career security, world class coaches and training facility are few hurdles which cannot cross without more investment.
- Sport culture in country- irrespective of gender, rural or urban area, caste, class, region, we need to push sport culture across the country. For that, initiatives like compulsory addition of sports in school curriculum, sport teacher post in schools, promotion of local level sports events, participation of panchayat and municipality for sport events promotion, behavioral change in society, are few basic steps need to promote at country level.
Apart from that few more steps need to supplement the Olympic 2020 mission like
- Professional handling of sports institution and bodies like SAI.
- Standard financial security for players and their family.
- Push other sports other than cricket at grassroots level.
- Focus to develop Indian coaches to train youth at local level.
- Medical facilities for players against injuries
- Develop world class facility for practice in India
- International exposure to potential players
India can learn many lessons on this regard from China or even small country like Cuba who have performed much better than India consistently. Many Indian players can definitely perform much better if they get proper support system and guidance.