The 11th Inter State Council (ISC) was convened after a gap of 10 years. Do you think this constitutional forum remains underutilized? Can the idea of cooperative federalism be realized best through the Inter State Council (ISC). Discuss.
Interstate council is a constitutional provision which had idea to have cooperative federalism and use as platform for continuous dialogue. First set in 1989, it have not utilized with full of its potential as
- Time gap– recent ISC have been organized after gap of 10 years, this time gap itself indicates grave mi utilization of constitutional provision.
- Other substitutes– earlier Planning commission, NDC, and now Niti Ayog as executive body has been used for center state discussion which underestimated the use of ISC.
- Continuity- Many reforms on cooperative federalism and using ISC has been suggested by different committees like Sarkaria commission and Punchii commission but because of no continuity in decision making it could not be utilized.
- Political system– earlier one party rule across country have not made enough space for ISC function and now because of coalition government system it is not been utilized properly.
In spite of that ISC has huge potential in present context as
- Platform for dialogue– as it has constitutional backing so it has unique place to facilitate the state center relations on complex issue like GST, inter water conflicts, center supported programme and so on.
- Policy making– for many recent government initiatives like smart city, clean Ganga mission, and so on it can be a platform for policy decision and policy making.
- Conflict resolution mechanism- There are many issues between states and center and steps which need serious dialogue and discussing, ISC meeting will be great help on this regard.
- Support to Niti Ayog- Niti Ayog is an emerging body which needs guidance and political support for its function that can be provided by ISC when NDC is not more in functioning.
ISC need to be more proactive and engage all states with center for proactive cooperative federalism which is need to future India.
Discuss the contributions of Raja Rammohun Roy to the social and cultural awakening in the 19thcentury India.
Raja Rammohan line was probably first modern reformist India has seen which Idea guided intellectuals throughout 19th and 20th century. His major contribution for social awakening was
- Fight for women rights– Rammohan throughout fought for women issues and rights, He understood the women life challenges from birth till death and especially he raised voice against child marriage, widow issue, and Sati system. He was architect of first Sati law in 1829.
- Fight against religious dogma– He put extra efforts to make people aware about religious dogma, irrational religious practices, and make loud voice against wrong Hindu preaching. He set Brahmo Samaj and tried to start rational discussion on religious issue.
- Fight for untouchables and prisoners– Raja ji became voice of untouchables and peasants against Jamindari system. He made all efforts to ensure equality for untouchable in society.
For cultural awakening
- Redefine Religion – Raja Ji redefined religious practices and its meaning to society. Not only Hinduism, but also he made same efforts for Christianity. He translated many religious sculptures for common masses in simple and local language.
- Advocacy for Indian way of life– although Raja ji opposed societal dogma but same time he was against the imposing of western life style on India.
- Internationalism – Raja ji was way ahead in his thinking and he made many efforts to bring best social practices from other countries and religions to Indian society.
Apart from that he recognized for nurturing of group of intellectuals, advocate for prisoners rights, as a writer and reporter, and great educationalist. His ideology and thoughts successfully guided many reformists in near future of Indian freedom fight.
The revolt of 1857 was a desperate effort to save India in the old way and under traditional leadership. Critically comment.
1857 war is always remembered as first freedom fight of India against imperialism and British Raj. Its contribution was desperate in nature to save India, can understand as
- Unity– it was the first time, many kings came together to fight against British Raj, before that never Indian made such united effort against any foreign invader.
- Touched large section of society– More or less this movement was able to touch large section of society and especially peasants and poor, who suffered most by British policies, have taken active participation at their level.
- Action against British policies– It was a bold but failed attempt to tell British raj that Indian have enough suffered by their policies and it became one instrument who instigated many changes in future of British India.
- Hindu Muslim Unity– It was probably last grand show of Hindu Muslim unity against British Raj. Accepting Delhi as supreme authority, Indian leaders showed their faith on old system of Indian governance.
In spite of all heroism it was not full successful because it desperateness had certain limitation like
- Intellectual support was missing largely for m1857 movement.
- Many kingdoms and Jamindar have not shown faith on that movement and supported British Raj.
- If offered same old leadership and old methods of struggle which was not enough
- It could not propose any future course of action for India
- Individual benefits preferred over national interest and that brought all kings together.
However the movement was landmark and after that British Raj proposed many innovations like recognizes kingdoms, end company rule, make space for Indian in system and so on. So 1857 set a new bar for future freedom movement of India.