What do you understand by the term ‘digital divide’? What are its implications for a developing economy like India? Also explain the potential of the Digital India scheme to transform the life of a common Indian.
Digital divide is a term used to differentiate between who have and who have not or have restricted reach of IT and internet services. India position is below than average in global ranking and a long journey ahead to fill the gulf. It has following implication for India-
1-Poor education- Now Many online courses, books, subject are available online. IGNOU and MOOC are platforms which offer many online courses but many cannot access them because DD.
2- Poor social services- under governance mission, government has offered much service online like banking, public complain system, land records for farmers, many documents services and so on but poor and rural community not able to access them because no access of IT services.
3-Connectivity- now in the era of globalization, IT and internet is the mean of connection but a whole generation of India left behind in the IT revolution because huge DD.
4-Financial services- which are backbone of any economy today, is based on IT services. Because India has poor DD, so more than half population still struggling for financial inclusion which is major cause of poverty.
5-Economy growth- many innovations in agriculture and allied sector like new insurance policy, weather information, online marketing, and so on all are heavily based on IT services but because of DD we are now able to cash it.
Digital India movement and innovation like NOFN, private engagement for internet penetration, interlink with Skill India, smart city, and make in India movement, start online courses under Swalamban have few major steps which can be game changer in near future with proper support of E literacy, good data speed and data security.
The socialist ideals that independent India followed had its roots in the freedom struggle. Do you agree? Who were the eminent proponents of socialist ideals during this phase? Discuss their contributions in the growth of socialist ideas.
Socialist ideas deeply rooted in Indian freedom movement but India has not copy paste form other countries rather under Gandhiji leadership it was nurtured. Other than Gandhi ji, Nehru, Subash Bosh, Jayprakash Nrayan, Binova Bhave, and so on follow the path. Main contribution offered by them was following
Trusteeship- it is unique combination of capitalism and socialism and under which made richer section of society more responsible to poor people. Cooperative movement, trust model, and now CSR draw inspiration from it.
Planned economy model- in 1931 congress choose this model propagated by Nehru and Boss and after independence till today we are following this model for Indian development.
Land reform– Bhave focus on Bhoodan and gaondaan, Nehru policy on jamindari removal, tenancy reforms, and land reconciliation were major steps which had root in socialistic approach.
Constitution- Indian constitution made by forefathers draw a lot of motivation for freedom fight and under DPSP, Gandhi socialism and other provisions are gift of socialist ideology of Indian citizens.
Rural development model– in post independence like community development programme than idea of panchayat raj, and later many other innovations had strings from socialist ideas.
Idea of developmental administration- after colonial administration which was guided by Patel and Nehru had motivation from socialist ideas to deliver the independence promises.
Trade unions– farmers’ movement and trade unions was an idea from socialism movement which worked in continuation after independence also.
After 25 year of liberalization, India is still on same path as we have one of the largest social welfare programs in India like MGNREGA and PDS. True we have made important changes in economic policies but it has also strengthened the social movement in India.
Even though the Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement had ended in apparent failure, the national movement had been strengthened in many ways? Do you agree? Substantiate.
NCM and CDM, two corner stone of Indian freedom movement led under Mahatma Gandhi could not ensure freedom to India instantly but have played very important role for cause by following ways-
- Public awareness– NPM and CBD were ensured mass participation in Indian freedom movement and irrespective of religion, caste, class, gender. The depth of these movement show real strength of Indian masses
- Leadership development– Both the movements helped India to get more and more freedom heroes at all levels. Leaders like Nehru, Patel, get recognized after NCM and women leaders specially came in picture after CBD.
- Organizational strength– it helped congress to get organizational strength and made it one national party which was very important for future negotiations with British authority.
- Women empowerment– women, who were not active earlier, break all shackles and became a force after these events.
- Message to British authority– NCM and CBD both sent strong messages to British authority regarding desperate efforts made by Indian.
- Indian way of protest– Non cooperation, non violence, and disobedience, these tools never heard and practiced at such a mass scale in any colony against British Raj. Indian way of protest in NPC and CDM made Indian freedom struggle unique in the world till date.
Independence is not one day game and NPC and CDM proved itself a big event in the independence journey; principles and policies followed in the movement guided India and Indian politics in post independence also.
The year 2016 marks the 25th anniversary of economic reforms. It is said that the process of reforms that started in 1991 remains a work in progress. Do you agree? Justify.
India has taken a big step in 1991 and accepted LPG policies. Since 1991, India has seen handsome growth in terms of GDP numbers and thriving foreign reserve. In spite of that reform started in 1991 is ongoing journey because
- No trickling down effect- As per expected economy growth could not transferred to economic development and even today India is home of maximum poor people in world.
- Ongoing social transformation- we had economic reforms but still India have not seen social transformation supported with economic growth so gulf between poor and rich is increasing.
- Second phase of economic reforms- like GST, tax reforms., Banking reforms, coordination with global markets and groups, are need to be more cohesive.
- Social sector investment- after 1991 reforms it was expected to have focus on social areas like health, education, road, and so on but still India is laggard in these fronts.
- Gulf between rural and urban India- after 1991 reforms India has developed many metro cities which are hub of financial growth but rural India has left behind and still 70% population is waiting for fragrance of economic reforms.
- Primary sector development- Agriculture and allied sector which provides maximum livestock support is largely untouched by reforms after 1991 reforms.
Beyond doubt many changes has been made in India after 1991 reforms but still reforms are half achieved as it need to supplement with political reforms, social reforms, and administrative reforms for better India.