The integration of the princely states was a result of the successful interplay of persuasion, diplomacy and force. Do you agree? Substantiate.
After independence balkanization, as predicted by many, fortunately not happened in India because of following reasons-
Persuasion- Indian leadership under Nehru Ji and Patel Ji with support of Lord Mountbatten, used persuasion to convince more than 500 princely states to join India. To convince them, different methods they adopted like allowing them to have their property, Privy Purse support to princes, allow autonomy at lease for initial few years, and so on. Majority of princely states joined Indian after successful negation.
Diplomacy- Many of Indian states, which had few issues while joining Indian union, they get convince by diplomatic efforts. Diwan and ministers of different states like Travancore, Junagarh, Bhopal, and in later phase state like Sikkim and UT Puducherry engaged in diplomatic efforts with union leadership which helped these states to merge in India. Mountbatten plan for states to join either India or Pakistan worked as diplomatic move to make union of India stronger.
Use of force- unfortunately in few states and to acquire few territories India used force also. In case of Hyderabad, Indian army joined local congress workers to unite it with Indian union. Similar of Jammu & Kashmir after signing instrument of accession, Indian army supported it to become a part of India. In case of Goa and Daman Diu India used force against Portuguese to make it part of India.
So it is true to say that India today what we see, is sheer efforts of persuasion, negotiation, diplomacy, and use of force to make it united after independence from British Raj.
What did ‘Kamraj Plan’ recommend and what were its objectives? Do you think the plan was unique having no parallels in India’s post independence political history?
- kamraj, a stalwart leader of congress in post independence era, chief minister of Tamil Nadu who popularly known as “king maker” in 1960s Indian politics. His famous Kamraj Plan had few objectives
1- To make Congress again a mass party and built its mass base which was eroded gradually in post independence era.
2- Proposed all important leaders to resign form ministerial post and focus on organizational strength.
It was his idea which supported him to become congress president and his idea was strong enough to mobiles 6 chief ministers and 6 union ministers to devote time for organizational strength.
Kamraj Plan has unique place in post independence era and do not have any parallel example because
- It was first and only time in post independence era when stalwart leaders put organization as top priority than any powerful post like CM and minister.
- It has seen as epitome of sacrifice in Indian politics today where organizational goal took priority over personal ambitions.
- This plan gave Indian political strength in tough time especially in war time against Pakistan in 1965.
- It was an effort to put party hold over central government which back fired in later phase to congress. That also drives a key lesson for all parties in future.
- It shut mouth of many leaders who tried to carve bigger political space for self in party and government.
So many ways, Kamraj plan was unique experience for Indian democracy and biggest party of India that time. It detailed many political lessons, which helped to enrich Indian politics and Indian democracy in coming future.
The early neglect towards becoming agriculturally self-sufficient and over dependence on food aid resulted into christening of the country as a ‘ship to mouth’ economy. Discuss. How the crisis was addressed? Who were the drivers of the transformation that followed?
British Raj largely neglected agriculture and Bengal famine in 1943 was its proof. In post independence era, under First five year plan, 30% of total resource was allocated for capital expenditure for agriculture but required food demand could not meet so India forced India to look for PL-480 programme. The situation worsens further till 1965 when to address crisis India adopted Green Revolution accepted few key changes
- Dwarf seed import- for wheat and rice India exported from Mexico and used it for increasing its food production.
- Input subsidy – to farmers on seed, fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation, and equipments so farmers motivated to adopt innovation.
- Concentrated approach- to focus on few regions like Punjab, Haryana, and Eastern UP. It helped for efficient use of scarce resources.
- Increase crop intensity- cropping pattern get change rapidly and more and more land brought under agriculture to increase total food production.
- FCI and CACP policy- for food storage and grain pricing stability many policy level decision also has been taken like FCI and CACP establishment.
The Green revolution was a big success for India to feed its huge population and breaking image of “begging bowl”. This success India seen because of political leadership under Nehru Ji in initial phase and later under Sastri Ji, and Indira Gandhi. American scientist Norman Borlaug, and Indian scientist M.S,.Swaminathan who supported immensely for hybrid seed program. Indian agriculture minister C Subramaniam contributed a lot. Indian Agriculture University like Pantnagar and PAU contributed a lot to establish the revolution. Last but not least, Indian farmers who accepted the challenge and make Green revolution a grand success for whole nation.
With the exponential rise in the number of telecom users in general and internet users in particular, ICT can become a potent tool of social and economic inclusion. Examine.
The biggest benefit after 1991 economic LPG for common men is telecom sector which actually percolated up to grass root level; today 1.05 billion Indian are using it. ICT can transformation socio and economic life of Indian as-
ICT for social inclusion-
- Bridge knowledge gap- mobile and internet make access to huge range of courses, distance education sources, programme like SWAYAM and MOOC to grass root.
- Social welfare programme- JAM trinity, DBT transfer for LPG and PDS, target the beneficiary, innovative online banking, and so on many feature access by ICT development.
- Put the last first- Governance reach to tribal community, different able people, old age people, and farmers is possible through ICT. Digital India movement, many other state level initiatives are working towards it.
- Judicial remedy- Judiciary also moving towards innovation to reach last section of society by using ICT tools.
- Across the society- the most beautiful thing of ITC is it does not make differentiate based on caste, class, gender, age and region so accessible to all.
- It helps for people participation in governance and empowering people institutes.
ICT for economic welfare-
- Online financial inclusion- Jan Dhan success and its coverage in shortest period simply not possible without ICT.
- Taxation policy- to broaden taxation base, use of ITC is probably cheapest and easiest way for government.
- Reduce corruption- no intermediary so reduce financial corruption.
- Farmer welfare- eNAM, Kisan tv, insurance programme not possible to get success without ICT success.
Today digital India movement can help to fill gap in digital dividend and has potential to change the social and economic life of common Indian.