Waste generation is a severe fallout of urbanization in India. What solutions would you recommend for effective waste management? Discuss.
Waste generation is big challenge across the globe and India in not untouched. This can be understand by few facts-
1-Out of total 20 most polluted cities, 13 cities are from India
2-India is fifth largest electric polluter with illegal import from other countries.
3-Once in a day India has produced total 1.43 lakh ton solid waste and total 62 million waster annually.
4- Only 75-80% waste get collect in cities, out of that only 22-28% gets treated. Rest all get dumped in landfill sites.
In that light for effective waste generation need few concrete steps
Solid waste management rules have been revised; need to incorporate in action plan of state bodies.
- Scientific segregation organic, non organic, electric waste and separate scientific deposition.
- Ensure solid waste management facilities in small town cities also.
- Third tier need to be strengthened in federal structure for delivering its duty.
- Need to promote new startups for solid waste management
- Integration of rage pickers, and better work and health support.
- Biodegradable plants for bio manure production.
- Solid waste treatment plants compulsory implement at industrial hubs, SEZs, and polluted industries
- No disposition allowed in main water channels without treatment.
- Stick punishment for rule breakers.
Swach Bharat Abhiyan, involvement of dignitaries, building toilets, and annual survey will do little for the clean Indian city if individual will not make it as mass campaign. As state subject, states need to prioritize it with center assistance.
Discuss the changing gender composition of migration in India. Which factors have led to these changes? Examine.
In 2001 census, out of total 309 million internal migrations, female migrants constituent 218 million where as male are 91 million based on place of last residence. This number is again supported by 2011 census which indicated women migration is more in recent period than past. It shows because of different economic, urbanization, social, cultural, and policy factors, women are also significantly influence in recent phase.
Reason behind more women migration-
- Social factors like-
-More and more nucleolus families
-Less land holding and poor availability of resources in rural areas
- Economical factors-
-Technical intervention in agriculture replaces labor force significantly in terms of total labour availability
-Increase financial needs for child education, health, and other goods, force both members to work and earn money.
-New economic opportunities like construction labour work, textile work, household work in cities, and so on which women are also taking.
-Poor rural development not able to fulfill aspiration of new generation so they shift.
- Natural factors like natural calamity in north Indian states, land slide in hills of Uttarakhand is more frequent with time which forces to shift in safe places
- Policy role- government push for city development lured coming generation to nearby city areas.Regional disparity pushed for migration irrespective of gender.
Irrespective of pull or push factor of women migration is increasing. Distress migration need to manage with better social development in rural areas and third tier cities. Similar who get migrated they need to have social security, better life, and security which is deep concern for women in new place.
Urban security ecosystem in Indian cities is not conducive for women. Do you agree? What are the associated issues and challenges? Elaborate.
Recent law reform which allow women to work overnight in urban areas, raise the debate on women security issues in Indian cities. Urban security ecosystem need to improve drastically for women as they face many challenges like
1- Security issues- is the main reason so women do not prefer early or late night working hours.
2- Transportation security- incidents like Nirbhaya, has drastically impacted women trust on public transport system. Metro services are more reliable but accessible in selected cities.
3- Organizational security- low gender ratio in office, poor sanitation facilities, insensitivity among co workers on women issues
4- Labour laws- in India labour laws are not very conducive to women and do not motivate them to participate in organizational work force.
5- Income security- a report says income disparity is 24% in India on gender basis which is discouraging factor.
6- Patriarchal mindset- in society which restricts girls to take job and move freely outside for work.
7- Law and order- situation is not much trust worthy so women hesitant to call police for help.
To resolve the issues in urban cities and make them more workable for women workforce need to work on all these points. Use of technology like CCTV camera, GPS in all public transport vehicles, emergency working number, emergency button in mobile as proposed, are few measures. On social security dimension, change in patriarchal mindset, better transportation, and sanitation facilities are few aspects. To ensure law and order more women policemen in service, special help line for police, strict action, rapid judicial process, are important task to achieve.