The theme of Lord Buddha in meditation finds a prominent place in the rich visual art forms of India. Discuss.
Buddhism get popularize largely by Buddhist art and painting which depicted Buddha in different forms. Buddha in meditation statue reprints the concentration; as Buddha eyes are high open half close which depicts his awareness for inner and external world. Buddha mediation has influence Indian art by following ways
Gandhara style– here Buddha first time seen in meditation posture. It is mix with Greek Indo style and Buddha. The Gandhara style was more oriented to Buddha and many stone painting in Buddha meditation posture can find under this style.
Mathura style– it has given more Indian touch to Buddha mediation sculptures; here Buddha redesigned more as Indian gods with many similar features. Buddha and Bodhisttavas sculptures in meditation form carved under Mathura style.
Amarawati style– In South Indian region also under Amarawati painting, Buddhism and mediation sculptures got prominent place. It was influenced by other styles like Greek scrolls in combination of Indian deities. Matter and size of Buddha meditation image varies in size.
Mural painting and cave art– across Ajanta, Elora, Aurangabad cave, Bhaja caves and other places Buddha in meditation statue has been designed.
Religious literature– dedicated to Buddha and his life in different languages are having prominent place for Meditating Buddha image.
Apart from that, Indian style which was flourished in other countries like South East countries, Buddhism image redesigned through mixture of Indian art and local style.
Since ancient period Guru- Shisya tradition has seen one of the most sacred relations. Parallel to that music has seen as traditional way to transfer the knowledge from one generation to next. Naturally Music and guru- Shisya tradition are complementary idea in Indian tradition. It can be understand by many examples-
- Shruti tradition- where all teaching in oral musical form transferred from guru to shisya in ancient time. Still it is in practice in many South Indian temples.
- Upnishad and Aranyaka- philosophy delivered in musical form under Guru-Shishya tradition where teacher narrated to student and they make note of it.
- Geeta- one of the most quoted philosophical book Geeta is full of musical quotes, which Krishna narrated to his disciple Arjuna.
- It has presence across the religions which flourished in India; Gurunanak narrated his teaching in musical form to Mardana and other disciples. In Bhakti Movement Kabira, Ramdas ji and other saint taught in musical form to their followers.
- Hindustani music- which is a social organization setup where music style has passed from one generation to other with adherence on particular music style based on guru Shisya tradition only. As India we have different Ghrana like Banara Gharana, Jaipur Gharana, Agra gharana and so on; the concept of Guru- Shisya leads to that Gharana form one generation to other. Kathak, Thumri, and other are developed on this relation only.
So since ancient time Guru-Shisya tradition has been a carrier of Indian Music and reason for its survival and popularity.
Indian Railways is a classic case of public sector monopoly. Do you agree? Does Indian Railways require an independent regulator? Critically examine.
Indian railway is backbone of Indian transportation service. It is an example of public sector monopoly by many reasons-
- Single seller- Railway alone can sell its services and no other mean to get the railway ticket.
- No competitor- for railway because of many reasons like pricing and connectivity.
- Price market- Railway alone can decide it’s pricing on ticket and freight. Recent decision of serge pricing is one example.
- Production services- Now privatization has started like in catering but still largely production base services are owned by state.
- Legislative backup- as no other services comparable to railway has legislative backup which is also a cause for its monopoly nature.
Because of its monopoly and other reasons, there are many challenges railway facing and losing its share in transport and freight. To overcome it, Railway need independent regular to manage
- For professional budgeting and set fares
- Ensure privatization as per need to railway for different requirements
- Manage and guide side activities which reduce railway efficiency.
- Keep railway out form political influences and bureaucratic policy paralysis on decision making.
However it may not be the ultimate solution as
- As railway is link to legislative so difficult to keep it away from political watch which is important also to ensure accountability.
- It is not about independent regulator but about proper implementation as in many cases regulators are also failing to bring desirable changes.
Railway is in transition phase and it need to take some bold decisions to make it more competitive, user friendly, and financially stable.