There is a thin line between collective bargaining and mob extortion. Examine the given statement in the light of the role played by pressure groups in India.
In a welfare state, there is always space for negotiation for various demands which expressed by different means. Collective bargaining used more in positive sense where collectively people demand and put pressure on government to achieving the objective for a common cause. Mob exertion many arguer as extreme extension of former in terms of methodology and sometime time demands itself. Both are characters of pressure groups across globe. While delivering it, different methods evolved largely mix of both two. It has positive impacts on
Policy reform- movement like India against corruption helped to bring corruption as main issue in national elections. Business group pressure helped to make positive sentiment for legislative reform like GST.
Mobilize masses- on key issues like women safety, communal harmony, and legal rights and so on.
Voice to destitute section- as helped to implement policy like MGNREGA, RTE, NFSM and so on.
But same time in many cases it used public sentiment which hurt national development as many argued like protest against power plants on the name of land acquisition, climate change, threat to ecology, that cause lot of tussle between policy makers and pressure groups. Or raise issue like religious sentiments, castism, reservation, water dispute issues, and so on for gain of specific community or region, created lot of social challenges for state.
So pressure groups used different methods based on their strength, their vision, ideology, and issues. In a democracy all has right to raise voice on any issue but that right need to use constructively for larger good of nation.
By taking suitable examples, discuss the role of business groupings like FICCI and CII in policy formulation.
India has long history of business grouping in India FICCI, stabilized in 1927 for protecting business rights under British Raj. Over a period of time many business groups emerged like CII, ASSOCHAM, AIMO and so on. They help in policy formulation by following ways-
- Developing economic model- before independence, business groups presented Bombay plan as model of development for free India. Now also they help for design models like renewable energy policy in recent time.
- Mobilize support- indirectly they help to mobilize support for policy reforms across the political ideology like for telecom sector or GST reform, it organized many events to influence the different political parties at center and state level.
- International negotiation- in bilateral relations between nations like India- USA or in international events like in Davos, these groups work with government to attract more business and investment for India.
- Develop best practices- such forums are actively evolve in policy making body like Niti ayog and provide insight for implementation better policies learn from industry experience and global experience.
- Negotiation- with government for welfare and safe guard for industry welfare as in recent time after NGT ban automobile business group demand government for necessary intervention.
- Educating people- as in case of net neutrality by organizing debates and discussions they helped government to educate people on respected government policy; also government get people perspective by this exercise.
Business groups across groups are closely working with government on policy design; however they need to broaden the vision for inclusiveness and equality as it seen as major critics against them.
The decision to ratify the Paris Deal will have several socio-economic implications which require advanced planning and policy formulation. Elucidate.
India has decided to ratify the Paris climate deal with ambitious targets like reduce 33-35% GHG gas emission, increase forest up to 33%, renewable energy target 175 GB, and 40% shift to renewable sources of total energy needs.
To achieve these targets, certainly socio economic implications like inflation by incorporating new technology, agriculture sector, forest policy, third tier governance system and so on.
To ensure smooth transaction from present to future transactions need advance planning like
- Cooperative federalism- as many subjects fall under state subject like forest, power so policy need to incorporate state views for its implementation.
- Long term plan- need to collaboration election time with finance commission cycle, SGD targets, INDC targets and development perspective plan to have better policy and resource coherence.
- Collective approach- need public private and civil society on common ground for policy implementation
- International collaboration- India needs to have financial support, technology access from other countries so need to make it integral part of future negotiation.
- Expertise- at executive level, time is for lateral entry of experts to implement such ambitious target which simply cannot achieve by regular administration.
- Strong civil society- to mobilize community, to develop innovative models, and help government on implementation.
- Regulation and monitoring- to reduce the corruption charges, judiciary delay, people suspense on polices, need effective real time motioning like PRAGATI initiative at all level of governance.
- Make in India- it has bring many new opportunities also to develop employment opportunity so need develop mitigation and adaptation technology at national level.
The government in the biggest litigant today. Can you suggest some ways to address the high numbers of litigations involving the government?
One powerful argument presented by judiciary to separate judiciary from executive is because; government at union and state level together is biggest litigant in India. To overcome this situation many steps can be taken
- Legislative process- need to be robust because poor law is root cause for future litigation challenges.
- Law reforms- Law commission identified more than thousand laws which are not needed or not as per need of hour. All such laws need to scrap or need to amend as per need.
- Police reform- Police one of the largest culprits for litigation charges against state. There are many reforms suggested by SC in2006 which need to implement for better police system.
- Technology- litigation because no or poor transparency, Technology can help to ensure information dissemination to avoid changes under RTI and other acts, to reduce scope for litigation.
- Power decentralization- for more public participation so little scope for bureaucratization and litigation of process
- Focus on Human resource- government officials negligence for law need to avoid by focusing on their training and legal awareness. It need to supplement with ensuring accountability for citizen charter and public service act.
- Communication–use of Digital India and social media for direct and faster communication on debatable issue so more scope of clarification to avoid legal act.
With all these, need to focus on e judiciary system and judicial reform so there will be faster solution of litigation process.