There are two schools of thoughts with regards to strategy adopted to reform education and health sectors in India. One of them advocates larger role of the private sector while the other emphasises upon a state administered framework. What do you think in this regard? Substantiate your viewpoint.
Education, health and other social welfare dimensions are seen as human right and it need to access by all. To improve administration on administration especially for welfare aspects we need to have more share of private sector because
- Innovation- today private sector hospitals and education institutes are much more innovative in nature, a model which can adopt by government institutes.
- Financial resources- private can infuse much needed financial resource in these areas, like state of art health care are mostly covered by private sector in India.
- International collaboration- which is core for research and innovation in these areas are swiftly flow through private channels.
- Integration- private who are now looking for major industries they can also integrate industry need with education institutes so effective convertibility of degree to skill.
- Quality vs quantity- debate which crippled our public schools can be manage by privatization of institutes.
However as state cannot role back completely from public service for larger public welfare because private has limitation like-
- Privatization of health and education do not ensure its access to all without government regulation
- To achieve target under RTE we need school at Panchayat level, difficult by private model.
- Private institutes have many challenges like high cost, low sensitivity for deprive section, poor regulation that need to regulate by administration.
We need club administration with private strength and same time need to incorporate civil society, NGO like Pratham, third tier in the social security movement than only can achieve targets of SDGs in India.
India has no other way but to improve its ‘ease of doing business’ scenario, if it’s most important manufacturing campaign ‘Make in India’ has to be successful. Elucidate.
Under Make in India, already most of the sectors opened for FDI investment, invitations has been submitted by highest executing body to public and private partners at national and international forums to participate in Make in India. States are also taking lead with union on the movement. In spite of all this, India still not able to increase its pace because slows reform in ‘Ease of doing criteria”. It signifies that, ease of doing business is the key for success of manufacturing sector because it set the ground for industry establishment by following ways-
- It helps to start any new business in terms of time, procedure, and initial investment.
- Ensure supply of basic infrastructure required for any industry like power, transport, and so on.
- It deals with procedural details need for business deals to make it straight and competitive
- Reduce process in registering property, owing warehouse, or other resources must for manufacturing sector.
- Taxation process to make simple, easy, predictable to reduce the time and financial burden
- Make information easy available, transparency in business regulation and transparency.
- Resolving insolvency and other issues related to business in faster and effective pace. .
Ease of doing business steps are actually refection of government will at ground level which needs to attract the work in reality. All these steps are needed to take as bottom line to ensure Provoke private sector to take risk in manufacture sector and make India real competitive in global market as today India has 130 rank in ease of doing business.
“The desired maternal and child health outcomes cannot be achieved unless the adolescent health concerns are addressed adequately”. In light of the given statement, discuss the government initiatives aimed at improving adolescent health in India.
WHO data identify that around 1 in 6th person in the world belongs to adolescent age 10 to 19 years age. It is the stage when individual pass through many physical, psychological, social maturing phase. From girl’s perspective, it becomes more important as girls get marriage early age and its direct impact visible in their body and future children. Achieving maternal and child health not possible without adolescent care because
- This phase attracts for alcoholism and other addictions and it adversely impacted the health.
- Adolescent are at risk for early and unwanted pregnancy which impact physical and psychological health.
- Social problems like open sanitation and poor health care, cause problems like nutritional deficiency anemia in body so it effects the health in long run during maternity and reflect to child health also.
- Adolescent malnutrition reflect on mother and child mortality, mental growth of new born child are proven
To address these challenges government of India has taken many initiatives
- Swach Bharat Abhiyan to ensure close sanitation practice to reduce health problems like anemia
- Health education and behavioral change by using different mode of education channels and involves known personalities for mission.
- Data management and link to adolescent with nearby hospitals
- National adolescent health programme, involve aganwadi and ANM model adapted by government of India.
Additional, need to focus on sex education, improve nutrition, counseling, are need to ensure utilize the Indian demography and achieve the SDGs as it is integral to that.
The National Human Rights Commission lacks the teeth and autonomy to function as an effective enforcement agency of human rights. Do you agree? Critically examine.
National human right commission in India is a statutory body under protection of human right act 1993. Unfortunately after two decades, majority argued that NHRC not able to perform its duty as expected because
“NHRC do its work with limited resources on human right violation and its all finding are advisory in nature so cannot take direct action itself”. Present NHRC head called it teeth less because
- Limited human resource to conduct enquiry
- Scarcity of resources institutional, legal, and financial to reach up to conclusion.
- Bundle of complains which NHRC not able to manage and overburden.
- Federal structure so conflict with police, HSRC, political leadership on different issues.
- Human right act is outdated in many forms like not extended to J&K, not ensure enough authority to members, limit the investigative period and so on.
These challenges hampered NHRC performance in cases like Dalit riots, tribal human right issues, to raise voice against police atrocities, to counter against ASFPA action in North East states and J&K, and so on.
However cannot said complete failure because of its success to raise issues like abolition of bonded labour, sexual harassment of children, women issues, functioning of mental hospitals, and so on. NHRC also raised awareness on other issues and promote legislative act for policy making, people awareness, and make political consensus on important human right issues.
It is high time to empower NHRC to strengthen to face growing human right violation cases to make it as model for other developing countries also.
Why was the Indus Water Treaty in news recently? Do you think the treaty is unfair to India? Critically examine.
Indus water treaty was signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, which covers water distribution of six rivers. This treaty is in news recently after Uri terror attack and seen as part of India’s one of multidimensional options to put Pakistan under pressure. It has been argued that Indus water treaty is most generous water treaty across the world. It can be said unfair to India as
- Indus flow from India, but India uses only 20% of its water for different purpose and rest flow to Pakistan.
- Largest river under treaty, Indus has been utilized very little by India even when it passes from India
- Indian potential to use rivers for hydro power project is up to 18000 MW but generating only 11000 MW.
- In spite of climate anomalies, continuous hostility by Pakistan, and increasing water demand India has never demanded to modify the water treaty.
- Efficient use of three rivers passes to Pakistan can help to irrigate large part of J&K to boost local economy.
However many do not feel it as unfair treaty because
- Water as common good need to accessible to all
- India is also using three eastern rivers and do not share water with Pakistan.
- Indus and Sutlaj do not originate to India so we are also users of water coming from China.
India need to look all aspects before taking any paradigm shift change regarding existing water treaty because it will affect our relation with other neighbor nations and position as global major power.