The ongoing nutrition transition in India must have coarse grains as the driver of dietary transformation. Do you agree? Substantiate.
Sustainable development goal 2 seeks end of all form of malnutrition by 2030. India who is trying to achieving this target, need dietary transformation by including millets and coarse grain. Coarse grains are important because
- Nutritional value- Millets are much more nutritious to other grains like wheat and rice and have significantly more protein, vitamins, and minerals.
- Protein source- it is vegetarian source of protein especially for poor people who cannot afford other sources like meat, egg, and fish food.
- Food for all- Millets considered as healthy food for all people irrespective of age. It can feed to infant and old age people also. Diabetic people can also take it.
- Health promoting activity of millets in equal or even higher than fruits and vegetables.
- Rich source of nutrients for pregnant women so need to feed them for better health of new born baby and mother.
- Access to poor- tribal community, small and marginal farmers who are largely poor, traditionally grown millets and it was source of nutrient for them. That needs to reemphasize again specially in drought prone areas.
Millets need to be part of second green revolution. Variety of millets like figure millet, great millet, foax millet is already well grown in Indian climatic condition, it is time to promote them under national food security mission and make part of PDS system so it will be available to most needy section of society.
‘Cropping pattern’ and ‘crop rotation’ are two different concepts. Examine. Also discuss the factors that determine cropping pattern in a region. Take suitable examples.
Crop pattern defines proportion of area which is covered by one or many crops at a point of time. Rice cultivation in one hectare shows the cropping pattern of Kharif season. Crop rotation defines that how specific piece of land covered by different crops under a year. Rice- wheat, rice- pulse, sugarcane cotton are few examples of crop rotation. Cropping pattern varies in different agro climatic zone and it depends on many factors like
- Geological factors- type of soil, vegetation, rainfall, temperature, humidity, access of irrigation water, topography, erosion, and so on are few geological factors who influence cropping pattern. Tea plantation largely in mild temperature zone with acidic soil and regular rainfall areas.
- Economic factors- play a major role to decide the crop pattern. Better prices of vegetable and fruits such farmers to grow horticulture crops. Sudden rise of Gvar price in international market pushed farmers to adapt it.
- Government policies- Government support like MSP, import export policy, procurement support, subsidy on inputs like seed and so on is big factors for crop pattern.
- Farmer’s need- in Indian context where mostly farmers’ small and marginal so family need and food crops are prime choice as crop pattern. It is the reason that millets are more used in tribal areas.
In recent time government want to promote crop pattern involving pulses, oil seeds, and millets. For that government need to provide some incentives so farmers will be motivated to adapt these crops at large scale.
What is ‘on tap’ mechanism? Who is eligible to apply under this mechanism? Will it lead to financial inclusion? Discuss.
Reserve Bank of India recently changed its policy to provide bank license; earlier the policy was “start-stop” policy where banks get license at one time. New policy “on tap” will open window for all season bank license under RBI guideline.
To apply under ‘on tap” mechanism, certain criteria RBI has decided which are following-
- Existing non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) with residential ownership and have 10 year successful track record
- Individuals / professionals of Indian residents with 10 years of experience in banking and finance.
- Entities / groups in the private sector that are ‘owned and controlled by residents ‘and have a successful track record for at least 10 years.
The major objective for policy shift is to make banking sector more diverse and inclusive, so it will help for financial inclusion by following ways-
- More banks- NBFCs who are already working in non banking areas can apply for license now so their customers will become part of formal financial sector; Ex- Bandhan bank who work 90% in rural areas.
- Innovation and diversification- it will bring more competition in financial market so will promote innovative and affordable financial products for Indian customers.
- Focus on new market- already RBI guideline is clear for new banks that 25% branches should be in unbanked areas.
With small bank, payment bank, PMJDY, UPI, and now more banks, financial sector in India will be diverse, efficient, inclusive, and user friendly that is larger goal of it.
We know that India is committed to the principle of mutual ‘non-interference’ in international affairs. However, will it be ethical to follow this principle if there is blatant violation of human rights in a neighbouring country? Examine.
India follows the “non- interference” which simple mean is that India will not interfere in other country affairs and will respect for sovereignty of that country. This principle India has followed and that was the base for NAM and Panchsheel Principles. However in foreign policy nothing is permanent especially when it is for strategic need of country. In recent time India has raised voice for human right violation in Baluchistan province by Pakistan. Many may argue it against ‘non interference’ but it is justified because of following reasons-
- Human right violation- is an international issue and by raising its violation, India is showing its promise for human right which is also expected as potential candidate of UNSC.
- Policy continuation- India always stood for weaker nations; because of it India opposed USA attack in Vietnam or agreed to send peace forces in Africa. So presents step is mere extension of our past policy.
- Strategic gain- It was very important to support the voice of Baluch leaders also when Pakistan is trying to disturb the Indian state J&K. so with morality India also gain the strategically edge.
- Ethics vs national interest- in dynamic international situation, always ethics and right way may not help to gain what is need of nation. So need not to fall always in this trap.
There is nothing ethical to follow non interference when thousands are getting killed and India need to do needful for human right protection at all level.
What do you understand by ethical governance? If everything is enshrined in the law, why should a bureaucrat be ethical? Examine with the help of suitable examples.
Governance is about using the power by democratic rulers to serve the people for their social, economical, and political welfare. Ethics is paramount in governance because it ensures transparency, accountability, and compassion while delivering the service. Governance may be the subject of benevolence but it is ethics in governance which bring essence of duty to reach up to most needy people.
It is true that our constitution has essence of ethics and other than that, civil service code, duty norms of bureaucrats are full of ethical guidelines but in spite of that a bureaucrat need to ethics. Guidelines do not execute law but an individual do, so he needs to be ethical while delivering duty. It is work ethics who separate people like E Shridharan or Kourein from other bureaucrats. Guidelines serve the boarder purpose but bureaucrats need to work in details; in Defamation case SC mentioned that it is police officer who needs to use his logic to register the complain. Such role play needs high values for effective interpretation of law.
Laws are static but bureaucrat duty is very dynamic and so law interpretation may different with situations. A police man will follow traffic rules in normal cases but same rule he cannot apply when an emergency vehicle running on the road and he is responsible to make green corroder for patient safely.
So law and guidelines are important but equally important is ethical office for its execution than only society may relish good governance.
What are the parameters to measure good governance? Examine the performance of the State on at least two of those parameters.
Good governance is becoming a silent global resolution and demanding for it, it is difficult to define but there are specific characters of it
- Rule of law as per constitutional values
- Transparency in information flow to all section of society
- Government should be responsive to people need
- Government should be participative and decision based on consensus
- Governance should be inclusive in approach and accessible to all irrespective of caste, class, religion, gender and other hierarchy.
- Executive should be accountable to people
Indian government is moving towards good governance which can be justified by few examples-
People participation- now more in governance through digital platform like mygov, social media, and ministry invitation to people on legislation discussion like education policy. People suggestion to prime minister for better policies and policy like digital India has encouraged people participation in governance.
Accountable- Now executive are direct and more accountable to people up to grassroot level. Social audit make local administration accountable to people. RTE act empowered to ask questions to administration. Initiative like PRAGATI has ensured top officials monitoring by Prime minister. Competitive feeling among states pushing them to do more; public service bill in Maharashtra is example of it. Judiciary, CAG report, and other institutions also compelled for it.
India is gradually moving with good governance agenda but lot more need to be done for achieving future ambitious targets like SDGs, house for all, and top 50 rank in ease of doing business index, and so on.
The RTI law is not merely a tool for financial oversight of the expenditure of the taxpayers’ money by various government agencies. Rather it is the harbinger of the philosophy of transparent and accountable governance. Critically comment.
Recently one international report has accepted Indian RTI as fourth best law in total 110 countries who have such provision. This fact with decade of success RTI law proves its importance for transparency and accountability. It can be justified as –
No more secrecy- earlier under office act and other provision administration could check the information flow which should be accessible to citizen as right. This is no more the case after RTI act.
Information flow- transparency is not possible without information flow, after RTI law government compel to disclose the public welfare information. If not, people can ask the information.
Check on corruption- because of it many corrupt cases uncovered. Adarsh society scam, 2G scam, commonwealth game scam all get disclosed because of RTI act. It enforces accountability on officials.
Accessible- by paying mere 10 Rs anyone can look for needed information, so it empowers the most deprived people also in democracy. Same time it ensures that no one is far from reach of common man.
However still lot need to be done to ensure effective use of RTI in Indian context;
- Whistle blower act need to strengthen for safety of RTI activists.
- RTI scope need to widen but actually it is reducing and states are using different tricks to reduce its access to common man.
- 12500 cases is pending to CIC itself and this number is huge cumulatively.
RTI actually empowered the Indian democracy and one of the landmark acts; awareness creation and its widening its scope should be next focus for government.
What do you understand by ‘hidden hunger’? Which sections of the population are affected most by hidden hunger? What are its causes? Analyse.
Hidden hunger is deficiency of essential micro nutrients, minerals, and vitamins in the body because no or poor diet. It is different from hunger because food availability is not a challenge but issue is with nutrient uptake by body. It is important because even micro nutrients, minerals, and vitamins are required in very little amount but it is important for regular functioning of body. It can affect any section of population who do not take quality food in diet but more prone are-
- Malnourished population especially children and adolescents are susceptible to it.
- Pregnant women, tribal community, and disable people
- People affected by migration, disaster, and unsettled by different reasons.
Cause of hidden hunger
- Poor PDS service and limited food access through it.
- Limited food habit in recent time and little diversity
- Promotion of fast food culture.
- Economic poor so not able to afford quality food like vegetables and fruits
- Social reason as girls do not treated same as boy so limited access of quality food.
- State social welfare have limited access to poor and needy people
- Supplementary medicines are limited available in PHCs at affordable cost.
- Agriculture policy so farmers promote more grain crops and limited focus on oil crops, pulses, and vegetables.
To address it, NFSA act and mid day meal scheme can be a game changer. Here focus need to shift from food access to quality and quantity of food. Similar at PHC level need to make affordable access of important nutrients for lactic mothers and adolescents.