Discuss the socio-economic significance of land ceiling. Has this land reform been successful? Critically examine.
Land ceiling act was implemented in India in 1961-62 by state governments. It was defined the size of land holding that one person/family can own. It varies with quality of life and in different states based on social economic condition. It has following significance-
It helped to resist the social challenges and unrest like Telangana peasant movement.
Land distribution- it helped government to get land from big farmers and distributed to small farmers to sustain their livelihood.
Equality- it assured degree of equality especially when more than 70% population direct dependent on farming for livelihood.
Better land management- as small farmers did more intensive farming and put more efforts for land improvement so overall it increased the crop production.
However this land reform was largely fail to achieve what was expected because of following reasons-
- Different states had different land ceiling rules
- Judicial complexity as property was fundamental right in original constitution.
- Policy get influence by big land owners who had political and economical muscles so low political will to implement it.
- Poor land records so poor land distribution
- Many exemptions for religious, cooperatives, and charitable institutes
- Loop hole in the law itself and poor administration management to implement it.
Land ceiling success was visible in few states like West Bengal and Kerala where left government implement it with more vigor. However it happened with time as family size increased and land get distributed in next 2-3 generations.
Discuss the associated advantages of consolidation of land holdings. How does cooperative farming compliment land consolidation in augmenting rural farm income? Discuss.
Consolidation of land holding in farming means bring small agriculture land pieces together and make it economical viable for farming operations. In India where 80% land holing is small and marginal, it has many advantages
1- Economic benefit- it makes farming economic and assures maximum use of input, human capital for more production.
2- Farm mechanization- can be adapted after land consolidation and small farmers together can bear cost of equipment for cultivation.
3- Marketing benefits- for sale of surplus production and go for commercial crops together in group; corporate farming is example of it.
4- Institutionalize the farming activity- land consolidation is primary step of institutionalize the farming and form cooperative group, producer company, or so on.
5- Better crop practices- can be adapt in farm together under guidance of KVK, experience farmers, or other institutes.
Cooperative farming model can compliment land consolidation by following ways-
1- Input supply like seed, fertilizer, and equipment assured by it
2- Easy access to finance because cooperative banks are there.
3- Marketing of agriculture commodity through public and private channel, better price negotiation is key benefits of it. Ex- NCDEX purchase pulse from cooperative farmers in Gujarat.
4- Commercial relation is more formal and workable in long run. Pepsi purchase potato from Punjab cooperative farmers.
Issues like land misuse, NPA challenge, poor social capital, poor awareness among farmers make cooperative farming difficult.
Challenges like low and uncertain price of product, post harvest management can be face by small farmers through cooperative approach.
Since 1969, ISRO has contributed a lot for national prestige and human welfare. In spite of initial criticism like “wasting money on space exploration when people are hungry”, ISRO proved its metal and today we need more INSOs and R&D investment for following reasons-
Success of Make in India- it gets success only with indigenous technology and innovation. To make strong technological base in manufacture, R&D is the key.
Defense capacity- DRDO can learn many lessons from ISRO regarding indigenous defense capacity and reducing dependence on other countries for equipment need innovation as ISRO developed.
Welfare at grassroot level- ISRO innovation like soil testing, communication, weather analysis, navigation, disaster MIS, and so on used by common people; similar way need other institutes to adapt R&D for touching millions.
Represent India as new potential- ISRO now offering space services to other countries at global market; that need to adopt by other sectors also like agriculture, IT services, medical, and so on; for that government need to focus more investment in R&D.
Incubation hub- ISRO is a pioneer hub for space research; same way need to develop our IITs, IIMs, research institutes like IISC and TIFR, and so on as excellence of research on respective fields.
In India fertilizer subsidy is .8% of GDP where as R&D expenditure is .9%; it is much lower than our global competitors. We need more programme like Atal innovation mission and robust patent policy to develop India as research hub like ISRO has proved in space technology.
China has saying that for development of backward area, first thing they need is road, and rest all follows. 70% population is in rural areas, and still 40% population do not have access of all weather roads in India. World Bank data shows that rural area with poor road has direct relation with development. Rural road can transform rural economy by following ways-
- Connectivity- it increases connectivity of rural area to urban area so attract business, communication, banking services, import export of goods specially agriculture product marketing to main market.
- Explore rural tourism- Indian experience from Uttarakhand, HP, and North East states prove that rural area where road connectivity is better and efficient, tourism industry is more flourished.
- Reduce migration- it greatly helps for reducing distress migration as road attract business and work in local areas itself.
- Employment- road attracts secondary and tertiary sector development and reduces burden from agriculture so productive employment.
- Welfare programme- road development direct affects health for vulnerable section like pregnant women, new born child and so on. Also programme like RTE, RTF, electricity, livestock care all develops well because of road connectivity.
- Border area development- in strategic area needs all weather roads to stable the local population there which is very important for nation security.
Under PMGSY with World Bank, initiative likes Bharatmala, MGNREGA for road construction, army focus in border areas, states special focus for road development across country to boost rural economy.