What were the outcomes of the Paris Summit concluded in December last year? Discuss. Did the Paris Summit indicate a marked departure from the previous trend in climate change negotiations? Critically examine.
Paris summit has been seen one of the historic event where all countries agreed to reduce global temperature belong 2 degree temperature below of pre-industrial era. the major outcome of Paris summit are
1- All countries have to submit INDC as road map
2- 55 countries need to adapt who contribute more than 55% GHGs to ratify it in UN after 2020.
3- Financial mobilization by developed countries at least 100 billion every year after 2020.
4- Regular review of progress after 2020.
In many ways Paris climate change summit was departed from past negotiations as
1- First time climate change negotiation will be legally binding to all countries.
2- concept of ‘common but differential responsibility” get diluted from Kyoto protocol
3- Review mechanism will be at place.
4- Financial road map and technology transfer has been discussed which was missing in past
5- Focus on mitigation and adaptation both.
However many challenges on the way of Pairs climate summit as
1-Second biggest contributor, USA may face challenge to ratify it in congress so a big implementation challenge
2- No action plan for financial arrangement and technology of transfer.
3- There are arguments that it is not enough achieve ambitious 1.5 degree target.
4- No short term road map for most vulnerable countries like Mauritius and pacific islands
5- It missed concept of carbon taxation.
in spite on criticize, Paris climate change is only human hope against climate change and India as responsible country must contribute to achieve its INDC targets as leading example for world.
Open cast mining poses serious threats to the river ecosystem and other hydrological bodies. Do you agree? Substantiate by taking at least two case studies from India
Open cast mining, or surface mining in which mining usually done over surface and not special measurement has been adopted to minimize its adverser impact. It is still in practice because it reduces cost significantly. It is adopted in all developing and developed nations but it has serious impact on environment and hydro-logical bodies which are following-
1- Surface water get polluted and water bodies like lake, rivers, local ponds, all get silted with minerals of open cast through wind or water erosion. Ex- Water bodies in Kudremukh iron mines impact on river tributaries.
2- Ground water pollution because of leaching and percolation of harmful minerals. Coal mining in Jharia mines has caused ground water pollution.
3- Silting in river beds and in river basin area which pollutes water, local eco system, wetland bodies supported by river and so adverse impact on flora and fauna.
4- Forest and vegetation gets hurt because mining provokes deforestation lose of vegetation. Ex- bauxite mining in Sambalpur, Odisha.
5- Air pollution as macro and micro mineral particles mix in atmosphere through wind erosion.
6- Land degradation because of it and it becomes prone for desertification. Ex- Meghalaya where large land area not cultivable after open mining.
7- Agriculture practices largely get affected as in Goa, after intensive iron mining rice crop cultivation has reduced.
now in mining many scientific innovations has been developed like close mining, bio remediation to increase mining efficiency, and green mining concept; that must be part of existing and new mining projects.
The potential of the food processing industry isn’t confined to creating employment opportunities but is equally vital for the ongoing social transformation and nutrition transition. Elucidate.
India in spite of one the largest food producers, able to processed only 4-5% food which is very little compare to western countries where it is up to 70-80%. In the era of ready to eat and glob competition, food processing is one sector which has ample opportunity in multiple dimensions.
It offers employment generation for like dairy sector, meat and poultry, fruit and vegetables processed product like juice and pickle, fisheries, grain products like Papad and so on. Distress labour of agriculture can shift in post harvest processing phase which will provide year around employment, financial stability, decrease price unpredictably for farm product, and reduce the food wastage. It will promote farmers group, SHGs like Lijjat papad, and producer companies.
Beyond employment, food processing also helpful for social transformation and nutritional transition also as
1- It assures nutrient security by food fortification which now uses for Mid day meal programme like Akshay Patra innovation
2- Rising middle class demanding for ready to eat but healthy food that opens huge opportunity for food processing.
3- Pregnant women need good quality processed food for healthy child so it helps to achieve SDGs also.
4- Food processing opens door for millet revolution so its traditional users like small farmers and tribal community will get benefit out of it.
5- It can help to substitute to junk unhealthy food and contribute for healthy India and cash demographic dividend.
Food processing need to be integrated part of next green revolution and for that mega food park concept and 100% FDI is welcoming step.
Discuss the scope/ potential of poultry and meat industry in India. Also identify its upstream and downstream requirements. What are the main challenges that the industry is facing today?
Meat and poultry industry is a very important to diversify Indian farm income. at present India is world largest livestock producer and 5th largest meat producer. Annual growth rate of meat industry is more than 10%. With rise of middle class families food preference has also changed and meat is more in use as protein source. Indian meat industry mainly includes buffalo, sheep, goat, and camel.
Upstream requirement of meat industry are
1- Better storage and processing facility
2- Competitive quality parameters for international market
3- Stable government policies specially regarding export
4-Price competitiveness in global market compare to cheap meat from western countries
Downstream requirements of meat industry are
1- Research and innovation for livestock rearing knowledge transfer to farmers
2- Fodder development and access to farmers
3- Veterinary and vaccination facilities to ensure quality of meat
4- Sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures before consumption
5- Focus on indigenous species specially in poultry for meat supply.
6 Transportation facilities in rural areas
There are multiple challenges for meat industry, few important are
1- Huge investment needed for cold storage and processing which is missing
2- Finance support to small and marginal farmers is difficult to access
3- Quality parameters are vague and poor compare to global standard.
4- Bird flu and swine flu type diseases frequently harming industry.
5- Social stigma on meat industry is one major challenge
In the era ready to eat, meat industry has huge potential in local and international market and Indian farmers need it to double farm income till 2022.