What do you understand by ‘codes of ethics’? How is it significant for the civil services? Discuss.
Codes of ethics is document which detailed with organisation vision, values, and core principles. It is helpful for ethical guidance of individual action as per organisation values. Civil services also have its code of ethics which can help by ways to civil servant while performing his duties.
1- It helps to face conflict of interest situation and provide road map for decision making
2- it helps to synchronize the personal and organisational goals
3- All members of civil service get a clear guideline and so helps to bring a team feeling in individual action and thought.
4- It also work as ego protector of individual civil servant in complex situation.
5- New civil servant get clear idea and mandate about his role, organisational goal and motto by following code of ethics.
6- On vulnerable issues like financial transparency and accountability, code of ethics provide a ethical guidance while performing the duty.
7- Code of ethics practice give a sense of dignity to civil servant while performing its duty in public service.
8- It can be a moral support against legal cases.
it can understand by example- a civil servant can justify his action to any of his superior boss, influential person or political leader if he act based on code of ethics. Manjunath, a PSU official, followed this code of ethics and stood against corruption in his organisation; unfortunately he died but became a symbol of change within organisation for other youth leaders.
The idea of a Universal Basic Income is gaining traction across the world. Do you think India is prepared to adopt this scheme? Critically evaluate.
Universal Basic income is a concept to provide minimum income to every citizen from government to ensure minimum life standard. this concept was long pending in discussion and in recent time countries like France, Finland, Netherland, and so on started piloting on it. In India also a certain section of society demand for universal basic income because
1- 30% population is still below poverty time, to make sure minimum life standard for them, it need to be implemented.
2- Now technology and financial inclusion is enough capable to implement it without leakage if there is political and bureaucratic will.
3- It it state who failed to provide employment opportunity so state responsibility to ensure minimum income to citizen as in case of MGNREGA
4- People with minimum wage security, will become more creative and will think beyond basic need which is need of India.
However this idea has lot to criticism and challenge like
1- Already government subsidy burden is 4.2% of total GDP; it may increase more than 10% if will implement UBI, financial disaster for government.
2- People will have no motivation to work and demographic dividend may become liability in long run.
3- Huge population so cannot compare with small European countries
4- it will create distortion in market as tax rate will increase to implement it; again poor will be more vulnerable.
Switzerland citizens recently declined the offer of universal basic income; India also need to focus on existing welfare programme and empowering its people rather waiting for free lunch offer.
Droughts are man made ecological disasters. Do you agree? Substantiate. Also discuss the strategies to mitigate droughts.
Drought is about poor rainfall for longer period which directly affects vegetation and human life in a region. Drought is a natural phenomena but its frequency has been multiplied in recent time and it becomes disaster because poor management
1- Rainfall anomaly largely because of climate in post industrial era
2- Cropping practices are largely responsible to amplified the impact of poor rainfall as in Maharashtra in spite of poor rainfall warning farmers grow water intensive crop like sugarcane and cotton.
3- Infrastructure projects like dams, check dams, small irrigation projects, and watershed projects failure to deliver expected result as seen in Vidharbha region.
4- Water collection in wetlands, water bodies like tanks has been abandoned; it made California drought as worst man made disaster.
5- Exploitation of ground water for industrial and agriculture left little water during peak drought season.
6- Excessive water use practices in human life style but no focus on water recycling; IPL matches get water during peak drought period.
7- Political corruption, bureaucratic red tapism, and commodification of water multiplied the water crisis.
in the heart of drought hit Maharashtra there are shining examples like Rale Gaon Siddhi and Hiware Bajar where water conservation practices and better crop practice ensure surplus of water in poor rainfall years. Low rainfall is natural phenomena but unplanned human activity turn it to disaster. Focus on watershed management, better crop practice, forestation, use of drip irrigation, and water recycling can be good start to mitigate drought impact.
What are cyclone shelters? How do they provide protection at the time of cyclones? Discuss.
Cyclone is common phenomena in equatorial and tropical region across globe and it can great havoc and large human life lose as recently in Heiti. Cyclone shelter is human response to reduce cyclone impact on human life; largely it is meant for short period of human settlement during cyclone, tsunami, or flood. Success of cyclone shelter depends on few factors like
1- Its preparedness during off season when there is not hazard
2- Location of cyclone shelters and infrastructure of it
3- Multi hazard resistance of cyclone shelter
4- Access and availability of basic needs like food, safe water, cloths, electricity, communication means and so on.
5- Focus on infrastructure for different able, children, pregnant women during design
Cyclone shelter can help multiple ways during time of cyclone by following ways-
1- safety of human life during cyclone; evacuated people get shelter in these locations.
2- It helps to provide minimum requirement like food, water, medical help at peak hour which save many life.
3- It helps to bring people together under a roof so build social capital which is very important psychologically at crisis time.
4- it helps to build communication with family members and others so fill communication gap.
5- Medical help to needy people.
After Odisha cyclone, India has focused on it and at present across Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,, Gujarat, and other coastal areas it has been developed. Community hall, public place like schools, and local governance role has been focused much under cyclone shelter concept in India.