Naxalism is one of the greatest threat perception of India as accepted by Prime minister also in 2011 because of following reasons-
- Naxalism has presence in 9 states and around 110 districts, which means very large territory is partially controlled by anti national elements
- Home minister data indicates that more than terrorism, people killed by Naxal attack
- Many development projects started by state and central government not able to implement in Naxal affected states
- Naxalism is becoming bigger threat because they have access of modern arms, and involve in other activities like ransom, illegal mining, supply of fake currency, involve in cross border illegal activities and so on.
Since its inception in 1967 from Naxalbari, it is growing contentiously across states because of many reasons-
- Poor implementation of 5th and 6th schedule in tribal area
- Poor development like little access of health, education, roads, PDS, employment opportunity to Naxal prone areas
- Failure of land reform policies like land ceiling, tenancy reform, jamindari abolition and so on so tribal uprising against state.
- Poor law and order situation allow naxaism to grow
- So called development activities like mining, dam development, industry development, all hunted tribal community most so Naxal ideology attracted to them.
- Political failure to provide right direction to tribal community which further misguided by Left extreme ideology.
Naxalism is an ideology which will be control only by other ideology called development with effective law and order.
Communalism is political version of religious belief where majority of society try to impose ethnic and religious identity over other section of society. In India idea of communalism seeded and amplified under British Raj and they used it as a tool for divide and rule in India. Since post independence till present day communalism is a greater internal security threat to India because
- It is a major dividing force in the name of religion and India is very vulnerable because we have citizen of different faiths and religions.
- Political parties has been used it for narrow political gains and it has created tensions across time period like Sikh riots, Gujarat riots, Ayodhya temple issue, and so on
- It has been a potential reason that many social reforms are stuck like UCC and recent triple talaq issue.
- It affects most vulnerable section of society most and poor people across religion and create breeding ground for terrorism groups like ISIS
- Communal threat hurts security sentiments which are unwanted for business growth.
- Communalism has potential to change the demography of a region in a country like India; Kashmiri Pandits forced to leave Kashmir.
- Bomb blast, attack on major cities in the name of religion is outcome of extreme communalism
- It creates psychological fear and mistrust among citizen mind which is most unfortunate for any country.
Communal harmony, development for all, political maturity on sensitive issues, and reviving old Indian wisdom is only antidote for it.\
A lack of jobs and an abundant workforce have meant that the agrarian states of India have become tinderboxes waiting to catch fire. Comment.
Common belief about Indian agriculture is over burden and only 15% contributor to Indian GDP. Agriculture sector become synonym to low employment, poor return, poor marketing, and so on. However this is not all truth because of following reasons-
- Rainbow revolution focuses on diversification of farm activity, acceptance of drip irrigation, and promotion of commercial crops like vegetable and medicinal plants; it has huge potential to provide employment to large population.
- Indian post harvest industry (food processing), highly underutilized and only 3 % food get processed. Indian food retail market is expected to reach up to 61 lakh crore by 2020; and indicator for future of food processing.
- Indian fisheries, sericulture, apiculture, agro forestry, are few of the areas where huge potential lies but because of poor technology transfer it is highly unutilized.
- Livestock rearing is other area, where milk productivity and meat productivity is very low in India as compare to other countries, if that can be focus Indian agriculture can provide a big push for employment.
- Marketing issues in agriculture, starting from APMC regulation to cooperative setup for sugarcane all are complex and not farmer friendly; if this can be fix, huge profit will go to farmer
Agriculture itself is not vulnerable but the ways we look for agriculture that perspective need to change. We reach up to Mars but still do not have technology to ensure weather information to farmers for ensure insurance return at time. If these gaps will be filled by initiative like eNAM, or new insurance policy, agriculture is still enough capable to provide large employment in India.
While India strives to better it’s record on the front of indigenization of technology, the domestic ecosystem is not conducive for measures like joint development and transfer of technology. Critically comment.
Recent official invitation for building 200 aircraft in India for Indian Air force is a lucrative deal for any global armed manufacture but in spite of that, still India may need to wait for long to find a partner for joint development and Tot because of several reasons-
1- Conducive business environment- Tot India will seek from most advanced companies which are working in countries who have top rank in ease of doing business; India have 130th rank in Ease of doing business.
2- Transparency- Since Jeep scandal in 1948 India is facing severe challenges because lack of transparency and corruption in major business deals.
3- Business rules- Compare to China, India need to pass proposed legislative change at many levels like land acquisition bill and GST bill before final approval. It do not give positive signal to business world.
4- Taxation policy- India is one of the few emerging country which has been labeled for tax terrorism like in Vodafone case. Such incidents hurt business establishment.
5- Poor arbitration mechanism- so companies need to wait long for settle any kind of legal issue which hampers business.
6- Patent policy- is very much debatable and USA keep India in priority watch at 29th place, when list have total 30 countries.
7- Skilled human resource- pool is limited to handle cutting edge technology in institutes like DRDO.
in recent time center and states has taken many steps to overcome these challenges and but few challenges like skill India, are long term reforms so India need to move faster to achieve desirable goals.
While we realize the significance of indigenization of technology in strategic areas, our imports of arms, military vehicles, aircraft and carriers are increasing. Do you find a dichotomy in our indigenization objectives and our growing dependence on imports? Critically examine
In recent time government of India focus on indigenizatoin of technology; for that Make in India, FDI in many strategic sector like defense, attractive business deals like purchase of 200 aircraft has been offered. Same time we have increased the export also like Rafal aircraft from France which many see as dichotomy; however it is little about dichotomy because
1- Critical technology takes time to develop so that need to import for filling the immediate gap; Ex- Tejas aircraft has taken more than 25 years but need is immediate so Rafal deal.
2- Make in India need many industries to develop so need capital good in short run to establish it; to full fill immediate need, import is needed.
3- Sudden fall of import is also a cause of worry because it shows positive current account deficit, a sign of poor market sentiment as happened recently.
4- Import is also one way to improve foreign relations with other countries as in case of India-Russia relation.
Dichotomy can be justified with few arguments like
1- Still industries are waiting for positive policies in key sectors like like ship building and defense to ensure investment return.
2- Cheap product flow from China which India can manufacture easily.
3- Little investment in R&D
4- Unlike ISRO, other PSUs like DRDO sluggish to adapt changes to ensure indigenization.
In key sectors like Defense short term procurement cannot be said dichotomy to indegenization policy because that is strategic need but in other sectors exports need to avoid and focus need to put in in house production.